Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual

Key to ERIOGONUM Key to Groups

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Annual
    2. Involucre ± ribbed (or angled), generally either sessile or erect
Group 1
    2' Involucre unribbed, unangled, generally either stalked or reflexed
Group 2
  1' Perennial to shrub
    3. Perianth base ± stalk-like, ± as wide as pedicel and jointed to it; bracts generally leaf-like (± reduced above), 2–10 per node
Group 3
    3' Perianth base not stalk-like; bracts generally scale-like, 3 per node
Group 4

Key to ERIOGONUM Group 1: Ann; involucre +- ribbed (gen either sessile or erect)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Involucres appearing terminal (or few lateral); inflorescence ± repeatedly forked (or ± evenly branched) or umbel-like; inflorescence axes often short
    2. Perianth ± 1 mm, yellow to cream; East of Sierra Nevada, w Mojave Desert
      3. Perianth cream; n East of Sierra Nevada
E. ampullaceum
      3' Perianth yellow; w Mojave Desert, s East of Sierra Nevada
E. mohavense
    2' Perianth ± 2 mm, white to red; Northwestern California, Central Western California
      4. Inflorescence axes glabrous; involucres sessile (directly subtended by bracts)
        5. Involucre ± 3 mm, ± cylindric, teeth 5; Inner North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area
E. luteolum var. caninum
        5' Involucre ± 4 mm, bell-shaped, teeth 8; Inner South Coast Ranges
E. nortonii
      4' Inflorescence axes generally ± hairy (if glabrous, lower involucres stalked)
        6. Involucre glabrous — inflorescence axes subglabrous; s San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges
E. argillosum
        6' Involucre tomentose
          7. Leaves basal; Inner South Coast Ranges — styles 0.1–0.3 mm
E. eastwoodianum
          7' Some leaves cauline (or lowest bracts quite leaf-like); Inner South Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area
            8. Involucres sessile throughout; ne San Francisco Bay Area; probably extinct
E. truncatum
            8' Lower involucres stalked; Inner South Coast Ranges — styles 0.7–1 mm
              9. Perianth lobes smooth
E. temblorense
              9' Perianth lobes papillate when fresh
E. vestitum
  1' Most involucres appearing lateral; inflorescence cyme-like, ± unevenly branched; axes sometimes long, wand-like
    10. Perianth ± hairy (magnification needed)
      11. Perianth densely long-hairy, 2–2.5 mm; Northwestern California
E. dasyanthemum
      11' Perianth minutely hairy, ± 1 mm; Desert Mountains
E. puberulum
    10' Perianth (sub)glabrous (sometimes minutely glandular)
      12. Involucre < 1.5 mm
        13. Inflorescence axes ± tomentose
          14. Perianth lobes widened at base; San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges; rare
E. foliosum
          14' Perianth lobes ± fan-shaped, narrowed at base; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert; common
            15. Perianth yellow to red; inflorescence branches generally curved ± inward
E. nidularium
            15' Perianth white to pink or pale yellow; inflorescence branches generally curved ± outward
E. palmerianum
        13' Inflorescence axes glabrous
          16. Perianth yellow, ± 1 mm — East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
E. brachyanthum
          16' Perianth white to reddish, 1–2 mm
            17. Perianth 1–1.5 mm; eastern Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges
E. elegans
            17' Perianth 1–2 mm; Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Desert
E. baileyi
              18. Inflorescence glabrous; Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert; common
var. baileyi
              18' Inflorescence tomentose; Great Basin Floristic Province; uncommmon
var. praebens
      12' Involucre 2–7 mm
        19. Leaf blade elliptic to (ob)lanceolate; inflorescence axes generally tomentose
          20. Involucre 4–5 mm, teeth minute
E. roseum
          20' Involucre generally 2–3.5 mm, teeth ± prominent
            21. Inflorescence axes ± upcurved; petiole often winged — South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges
E. cithariforme
            21' Inflorescence axes straight; petiole slender
E. gracile
              22. Inflorescence generally tomentose; widespread
var. gracile
              22' Inflorescence ± glabrous; Peninsular Ranges
var. incultum
        19' Leaf blade ± round; inflorescence axes glabrous or woolly above nodes
          23. Inflorescence axes generally woolly above nodes; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
E. vimineum
          23' Inflorescence axes glabrous; widespread
            24. Some leaves ± cauline (or lowest bracts leaf-like and scale-like)
L. luteolum var. luteolum
            24' Leaves basal; bracts scale-like
              25. Involucre 2–2.5 mm — Central Western California, nw Western Transverse Ranges
E. covilleanum
              25' Involucre 3–7 mm
                26. Involucre 3–4 mm; plant 5–40 cm; Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
E. davidsonii
                26' Involucre 4–7 mm; plant 40–100 cm; n Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
E. molestum

Key to ERIOGONUM Group 2: Ann; involucre unribbed (gen either stalked or reflexed)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Some leaves cauline (or lower bracts quite leaf-like)
    2. Leaf linear, < 2 mm wide, rolled under — California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province
E. spergulinum
      3. Inflorescence prostrate to ascending, generally 2–5 cm, axes glabrous — s High Sierra Nevada
var. pratense
      3' Inflorescence erect, 5–40 cm, axes glandular
        4. Perianth ± 2 mm; widespread, including Sierra Nevada
var. reddingianum
        4' Perianth ± 3 mm; Sierra Nevada
var. spergulinum
    2' Leaf wider than linear, > 2 mm wide, flat
      5. Perianth covered with hooked hairs
        6. Flowers 2 per involucre
E. hirtiflorum
        6' Flowers 4–6 per involucre
E. inerme
      5' Perianth glabrous, glandular, or soft-wavy-hairy
        7. Perianth soft-wavy-hairy — adjacent to s San Joaquin Valley
2 E. ordii
        7' Perianth glabrous or glandular
          8. Stamens long-exserted; widespread c&s California
E. angulosum
          8' Stamens included; some widespread
            9. Flowers hidden by dense, cottony hairs; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, w San Joaquin Valley
E. gossypinum
            9' Flowers not hidden; widespread, including San Joaquin Valley
              10. Outer perianth lobes flat, wavy-margined — s Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, w Mojave Desert
E. gracillimum
              10' Outer perianth lobes with a pouch-like bulge or cup
                11. Outer perianth lobes cupped at base; Great Basin Floristic Province, s High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges
E. maculatum
                11' Outer perianth lobes cupped at tip; Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, w Mojave Desert
E. viridescens
  1' Leaves basal (at most a few ± cauline on lowermost stem)
    12. Leaf glabrous to coarsely hairy or hairy in patches (not tomentose); perianth often yellow (sometimes white to red)
      13. Perianth glabrous — east-central Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
E. esmeraldense var. esmeraldense
      13' Perianth subglabrous to hairy
        14. Perianth subglabrous to sparsely soft-hairy
          15. Inflorescence axes sparsely hairy — adjacent to s San Joaquin Valley
2 E. ordii
          15' Inflorescence axes subglabrous or sparsely glandular
            16. Perianth white, ± 2 mm; Peninsular Ranges, sw Desert Mountains
E. apiculatum
            16' Perianth pink to red, ± 0.5 mm; s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains
E. parishii
        14' Perianth densely and often coarsely hairy
          17. Perianth whitish; inflorescence glandular throughout — ne Mojave Desert
E. glandulosum
          17' Perianth yellow; inflorescence glandular only at base or nodes
            18. Involucre teeth generally 4(5); Central Western California, Desert
E. trichopes
              19. Plant erect, tall; involucre generally 1–1.5 mm; Inner South Coast Ranges, n Western Transverse Ranges
var. hooveri
              19' Plant spreading, low; involucre < 1 mm; Desert
var. trichopes
            18' Involucre teeth generally (4)5; Desert
              20. Inflorescence axes slender, nodes glandular; eastern Mojave Desert; uncommon
E. contiguum
              20' Main inflorescence axes wider below nodes, generally glabrous; s Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert; common (plants generally 1st-year-flower per: see also Group 4)
E. inflatum var. inflatum
    12' Leaf ± tomentose on one or both surfaces; perianth generally white to reddish (sometimes yellow)
      21. Outer perianth lobes ± cordate at base (magnification needed)
        22. Involucres erect
          23. Inflorescence flat-topped, generally < 30 cm; ne Mojave Desert
E. bifurcatum
          23' Inflorescence narrow, 20–120 cm; Desert
E. deflexum var. rectum
        22' Involucres reflexed
          24. Inflorescence axes glandular — East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
E. brachypodum
          24' Inflorescence axes glabrous (except sometimes very base)
            25. Perianth yellow
              26. Involucre sessile; inflorescence ± umbrella-like; East of Sierra Nevada
E. hookeri
              26' Involucre stalks spreading or recurved; inflorescence ± open; Desert
2 E. thomasii
            25' Perianth white
              27. Inflorescence pagoda-like, in several tiers; involucre ± 1 mm; perianth base swollen; n Mojave Desert
E. rixfordii
              27' Inflorescence not tiered; involucre ± 2 mm; perianth base not swollen; Desert, Great Basin Floristic Province
E. deflexum (part)
                28. Involucre 2–3 mm, stalk 3–15 mm; main inflorescence axes often wider below nodes; Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, n&w Mojave Desert
var. baratum
                28' Involucre 1–2 mm, stalk 0–5 mm; inflorescence axes slender; East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
var. deflexum
      21' Outer perianth lobes obtuse to truncate at base
        29. Perianth minutely hairy
          30. Perianth white to red, ± hair-tufted inside — eastern Peninsular Ranges, s Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert
E. thurberi
          30' Perianth yellow (if whitish, not hair-tufted inside)
            31. Outer perianth lobe bases swollen — Desert
2 E. thomasii
            31' Outer perianth lobe bases not swollen
              32. Involucre minutely glandular; Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
E. pusillum
              32' Involucre glabrous; Desert
E. reniforme
        29' Perianth glabrous
          33. Involucres ± sessile; ne Mojave Desert
E. hoffmannii
            34. Leaf margin flat; plant spreading, < 50 cm; perianth lobes narrowly spoon-shaped
var. hoffmannii
            34' Leaf margin strongly wavy; plant erect, < 100 cm; perianth lobes narrowly ovate
var. robustius
          33' Involucres on ± recurved or reflexed stalks; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
            35. Inflorescence glandular ± throughout; White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains
E. eremicola
            35' Inflorescence glabrous (except sometimes involucre stalks); Great Basin Floristic Province
              36. Outer perianth lobes wavy-margined
E. cernuum
                37. Involucre stalk 2–25 mm
var. cernuum
                37' Involucre stalk 0–2 mm
var. viminale
              36' Outer perianth lobes flat
                38. Involucre obconic, ± 1.5 mm
E. deflexum var. nevadense
                38' Involucre bell-shaped, ± 2 mm
E. nutans

Key to ERIOGONUM Group 3: Per to shrub; perianth base +- stalk-like, jointed to pedicel; lower bracts gen +- lf-like

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Perianth base ± indistinctly stalk-like, often ± wider than pedicel and ± funnel-shaped or sharply 3-angled
    2. Inflorescence axis generally > 20 cm, stout, erect; inflorescence dense, ball-like, branches hidden; involucres generally many
      3. Perianth bright yellow to rose; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to ovate, largest often < 10 mm wide; n Klamath Ranges
E. hirtellum
      3' Perianth cream to pale yellow; leaf blade generally ± round, largest generally > 15 mm wide; c&s Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains
E. latens
    2' Inflorescence axis generally < 5(40) cm, slender, often prostrate, branches generally visible (or 0); involucres generally 1–5 per node or cluster
      4. Bracts whorled near middle of inflorescence axis; perianth glabrous, ± yellow; eastern Klamath Ranges
E. alpinum
      4' Bracts at branching nodes only; perianth glabrous or hairy, white to cream or rose; California
        5. Perianth hairy; bracts 2 per node; High Cascade Range
E. pyrolifolium
        5' Perianth glabrous; bracts 3–5 per node; California
          6. Inflorescence dense; involucres terminal; bracts leaf-like; stalk-like perianth base very short, not angled; n California
E. lobbii
          6' Inflorescence open; most involucres lateral; bracts scale-like; stalk-like perianth base long, sharply 3-angled; s California
E. saxatile
  1' Perianth base distinctly stalk-like, ± as wide as pedicel
    7. Dioecious; staminate and pistillate plants obviously different
      8. Leaf upper surface shedding as leaf ages, becoming olive-green — eastern Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada
E. marifolium
      8' Leaf upper surface remaining tomentose
        9. Leaf blade 5–15 mm wide; petiole 7–30 mm; Klamath Ranges
E. diclinum
        9' Leaf blade 3–7 mm wide; petiole 3–10 mm; High Sierra Nevada
E. incanum
    7' Not dioecious (or staminate and pistillate plants not different)
      10. Perianth hairy
        11. Involucre lobes short, erect — Inner North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
2 E. tripodum
        11' Involucre lobes long, spreading or reflexed
          12. Inflorescence branches (and involucres) 2 or more
            13. Perianth 4–5 mm; Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills
2 E. tripodum
            13' Perianth 5–9 mm; High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
2 E. sphaerocephalum
              14. Perianth cream or pale yellow, generally ± conspicuously hairy
var. halimioides
              14' Perianth bright yellow; generally ± inconspicuously hairy
var. sphaerocephalum
          12' Inflorescence unbranched (involucre 1 per inflorescence axis)
            15. Inflorescence axis bractless — Great Basin Floristic Province
E. cespitosum
            15' Inflorescence axis with whorl of bracts near middle
              16. Fruit ± glabrous; s High Sierra Nevada
E. twisselmannii
              16' Fruit tip hairy; High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, n High Sierra Nevada
                17. Inflorescence unbranched; involucre lobes reflexed, appressed to tube
E. douglasii
                17' Inflorescence generally branched; involucre lobes generally spreading, not appressed to tube (see 13' for vars.)
2 E. sphaerocephalum
      10' Perianth (sub)glabrous
        18. Leaf silky-hairy ± on both surfaces — c Outer North Coast Ranges
E. kelloggii
        18' Leaf tomentose to woolly (rarely glabrous) especially below, not silky-hairy
          19. Involucre lobes ± erect
            20. Bracts whorled near middle of inflorescence axis
              21. Plant densely matted; s Klamath Ranges, n North Coast Ranges
E. libertini
              21' Plant loosely matted or openly branched; Sierra Nevada (see 30' for vars.)
2 E. prattenianum
            20' Some bracts ± immediately subtending involucres
              22. Perianth white or pink — s High Sierra Nevada
E. polypodum
              22' Perianth yellowish, often becoming red
                23. Perianth pale yellow in early flower
                  24. Inflorescence axis < 10 cm; se North Coast Ranges
E. nervulosum
                  24' Inflorescence axis generally 20–40 cm; s Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada
E. ursinum
                23' Perianth bright yellow in early flower
                  25. Inner perianth lobes wider than outer lobes; fruit 2.5–3 mm; not on serpentine, Western Transverse Ranges
E. crocatum
                  25' Inner and outer perianth lobes similar; fruit 3.5–5.5 mm; serpentine, Northwestern California
                    26. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to oblong, margin rolled under; Klamath Ranges
E. congdonii
                    26' Leaf blade ovate to round, margin flat; n Northwestern California
E. ternatum
          19' Involucre lobes obviously reflexed
            27. Inflorescence axis with whorled bracts near middle
              28. Inflorescence branched; involucres several
                29. Inflorescence rays generally 5–8; bracts subtending rays generally << bracts near mid-axis, generally sharply reflexed; Warner Mountains
E. heracleoides
                29' Inflorescence rays generally 1–5; bracts subtending rays ± = bracts near mid-axis, generally ascending to spreading; widespread, including Warner Mountains (see 33. for vars.)
2 E. umbellatum
              28' Inflorescence unbranched; involucre 1
                30. Plant densely matted; eastern Klamath Ranges
E. siskiyouense
                30' Plant loosely branched, spreading; Sierra Nevada
2 E. prattenianum
                  31. Leaf blade becoming subglabrous above; c&s High Sierra Nevada
var. avium
                  31' Leaf blade remaining tomentose above; n&c Sierra Nevada
var. prattenianum
            27' Inflorescence axis bractless near middle
              32. Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate, largest generally > 30 mm wide
E. compositum
              32' Leaf blade elliptic to round, largest generally < 20 mm wide
2 E. umbellatum
                33. Inflorescence a strictly simple umbel (obviously bracted only subtending rays, rays unbranched)
                  34. Perianth whitish, pale yellow, pink, or red, generally strongly striped
                    35. Leaf blade ± round, very densely tomentose (± felt-like) below; perianth ± bright red — San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains
var. minus
                    35' Leaf blade ± elliptic, ± thinly tomentose below; perianth cream to reddish brown
                      36. Perianth generally cream to pale yellow; Warner Mountains, n White and Inyo Mountains
var. dichrocephalum
                      36' Perianth generally pink to reddish brown; s White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains
var. versicolor
                  34' Perianth bright yellow, generally weakly striped
                    37. Low dense mat; inflorescence generally spreading; uncommon
                      38. Leaf blade ± narrowly elliptic, 2–6 mm wide; s High Sierra Nevada
var. covillei
                      38' Leaf blade ± ovate to round, 5–10 mm wide; Klamath Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range
var. humistratum
                    37' Spreading open mat or subshrub; inflorescence ± erect; common
                      39. Subshrub; leaf blade thinly tomentose below; Sierra Nevada (eastern slope), Great Basin Floristic Province, nw Mojave Desert
var. nevadense
                      39' Spreading mat; leaf blade densely tomentose below; eastern Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
var. polyanthum
                33' Inflorescence at least somewhat compound (some rays branched, or bracts whorled near mid-axis or mid-ray)
                  40. Leaf blade ± glabrous on both surfaces
                    41. Some inflorescence rays again branched, bractless except at branching nodes — s High Sierra Nevada, eastern Tehachapi Mountain Area, East of Sierra Nevada
var. chlorothamnus
                    41' Inflorescence rays unbranched, with whorl of bracts near middle
                      42. Perianth whitish or cream, 4–7 mm; Warner Mountains
var. glaberrimum
                      42' Perianth bright yellow, 7–10 mm; n High Sierra Nevada
var. torreyanum
                  40' Leaf blade hairy at least below
                    43. Perianth 7–12 mm; shrub, 50–200 cm — Klamath Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada
var. speciosum
                    43' Perianth 3–8 mm; low matted herb or subshrub
                      44. Perianth pink to reddish brown, conspicuously dark-striped; s White and Inyo Mountains, n Desert Mountains
var. versicolor
                      44' Perianth whitish to yellow; widespread
                        45. Perianth whitish or cream; eastern Desert Mountains
var. juniporinum
                        45' Perianth yellow; widespread
                          46. Leaf blade sparsely hairy on both surfaces — eastern Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
var. subaridum
                          46' Leaf blade densely tomentose, at least below
                            47. Leaf blade remaining densely white-tomentose above— s North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, n South Coast Ranges
var. bahiiforme
                            47' Leaf blade finally shedding above, becoming ± glabrous
                              48. Inflorescence subglabrous to thinly tomentose
                                49. Leaf blade generally finely toothed or wavy-margined; n Northwestern California
var. argus
                                49' Leaf blade margin generally entire, flat; Sierra Nevada
var. furcosum
                              48' Inflorescence ± densely tomentose
                                50. Inflorescence open (rays generally > 4 cm, involucres well separated); Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains
var. munzii
                                50' Inflorescence ± compact (rays generally < 3 cm, involucres crowded); n California
var. polyanthum

Key to ERIOGONUM Group 4: Per to shrub; perianth base not stalk-like, jointed to pedicel; bracts gen scale-like

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Stem jointed, breaking into short-cylindric sections; flowers 150–200 per involucre — ne Mojave Desert; uncommon (subg. Clastomyelon)
E. intrafractum
  1' Stem not jointed; flowers 7–100 per involucre (especially subg. Eucycla)
    2. Plant cushion-like, matted, or cespitose
      3. Inner and outer perianth lobes distinctly different (outer round, inner narrower, often notched)
        4. Perianth balloon-like from bulging outer perianth lobes; Desert Mountains; uncommon
E. gilmanii
        4' Perianth not balloon-like; California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province; common
          5. Inflorescence cyme- or umbel-like
E. strictum
            6. Perianth bright yellow — especially Modoc Plateau
var. anserinum
            6' Perianth ± white
              7. Leaf blade generally 5–8 mm, generally ± round, both surfaces white-woolly — Klamath Ranges
var. greenei
              7' Leaf blade generally 10–30 mm, generally ± elliptic, generally tomentose below, ± shedding and brownish above
var. proliferum
          5' Inflorescence head-like (involucres in 1 cluster per axis)
            8. Perianth bright yellow
              9. Inflorescence axis 5–20 cm
E. ovalifolium var. ovalifolium
              9' Inflorescence axis generally 1–5 cm
E. strictum 2var. anserinum
            8' Perianth white to cream or purplish
E. ovalifolium (most)
              10. Leaf blade 5–60 mm; inflorescence axis generally 5–20 cm; perianth generally 4–6 mm
                11. Leaf distinctly brown-margined; perianth white to cream
var. eximium
                11' Leaf not brown-margined; perianth white to purplish
var. purpureum
              10' Leaf blade generally 2–6 mm; inflorescence axis generally < 4 cm; perianth generally 2–3 mm
                12. Involucre 2–4 mm; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains; not on limestone
var. nivale
                12' Involucre 5–7 mm; ne San Bernardino Mountains; limestone
var. vineum
      3' Inner and outer perianth lobes similar
        13. Perianth ± yellow
          14. Involucre glandular — leaf blade ± oblanceolate
            15. Leaf blade 10–25 mm; involucre teeth 5; n East of Sierra Nevada, 1500–2500 m
E. beatleyae
            15' Leaf blade 4–15 mm; involucre teeth 5–8; s High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada, 2300–4000 m
E. rosense
          14' Involucre glabrous or hairy but not glandular
            16. Leaf blade 4–12 mm, ± oblanceolate; inflorescence generally 5–15 cm; Modoc Plateau
E. prociduum
            16' Leaf blade 10–35 mm, generally ± ovate; inflorescence 10–40 cm; Great Basin Floristic Province
E. ochrocephalum
              17. Inflorescence axis ± tomentose; n East of Sierra Nevada
var. alexanderae
              17' Inflorescence axis glabrous or glandular; Modoc Plateau
var. ochrocephalum
        13' Perianth white (yellowish) to rose
          18. Inflorescence axis hairy or glandular
            19. Perianth and fruit long-hairy; Desert Mountains
E. shockleyi var. shockleyi
            19' Perianth generally ± glabrous or glandular; fruit glabrous
              20. Inflorescence cyme-like, branches long; most involucres sessile, lateral — Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges (see 64' for vars.)
4 E. wrightii
              20' Inflorescence ± head-like; most involucres appearing terminal
                21. Inflorescence branched (but branches often ± hidden); s High Sierra Nevada
E. breedlovei var. breedlovei
                21' Inflorescence head-like, ± unbranched; c&s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
                  22. Inflorescence axis glandular; involucre flexible; c&s High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains
E. gracilipes
                  22' Inflorescence axis tomentose; involucre rigid; c&s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada (see 24' for vars.)
2 E. kennedyi
          18' Inflorescence axis glabrous
            23. Inflorescence cyme-like, branches long; most involucres sessile, lateral; Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (see 64' for vars.)
4 E. wrightii
            23' Inflorescence ± head-like; c&s Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
              24. Leaf coarsely hairy, ± rusty
E. breedlovei var. shevockii
              24' Leaf ± soft-tomentose, generally white
2 E. kennedyi
                25. Leaf oblong, 2–6 mm; c&s Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
                  26. Leaf gray to rusty; involucres 2.5–3.5 mm, tomentose; perianth 2.5–3.5 mm; se-most Sierra Nevada Foothills
var. pinicola
                  26' Leaf white; involucres 1.5–2 mm, subglabrous; perianth 2–2.5 mm; High Sierra Nevada (e slope), East of Sierra Nevada, nw Desert Mountains
var. purpusii
                25' Leaf oblanceolate to elliptic, 2–12 mm; Transverse Ranges
                  27. Leaf generally 6–10 mm, tip generally acute; inflorescence axis 8–15 cm; involucre 2.5–4 mm
var. austromontanum
                  27' Leaf 2–5 mm, tip ± rounded; inflorescence axis 1–12 cm; involucre 1–2.5 mm
                    28. Inflorescence axis generally 1–2 cm; 2600–3500 m
var. alpigenum
                    28' Inflorescence axis 4–12 cm; 1500–2600 m
var. kennedyi
    2' Plant ± erect, not matted (except some E. microthecum & E. wrightii)
      29. Subshrub or shrub
        30. Involucres solitary, 5–6 mm; flower 4–5 mm; n Outer South Coast Ranges
E. butterworthianum
        30' Involucres solitary or not, 1.5–3 mm; flower 2–4 mm; California
          31. Generally most involucres sessile, lateral; inflorescence branches long
            32. Branches fragile; involucres lateral especially near inflorescence tips; Great Basin Floristic Province
2 E. nummulare
            32' Branches stout; involucres lateral throughout inflorescence; California Floristic Province, Desert (see 64' for vars.)
4 E. wrightii
          31' Most involucres terminal; inflorescence branches ± short
            33. Involucres clustered at nodes (plant of Channel Islands if solitary)
              34. Leaves ± clustered, narrow; widespread, especially inland c&s California
E. fasciculatum
                35. Leaf oblanceolate, slightly rolled under, ± tomentose above
var. polifolium
                35' Leaf linear, tightly rolled under, subglabrous above
                  36. Leaf light yellow-green; perianth generally hairy inside — Desert
var. flavoviride
                  36' Leaf dark (or gray-) green; perianth glabrous or hairy outside
                    37. Plant generally decumbent; involucre and perianth generally glabrous — Central Coast
var. fasciculatum
                    37' Plant generally erect; involucre and perianth (outside) generally ± hairy
var. foliolosum
              34' Leaves borne singly, narrow or wide; ± coastal
                38. Inflorescence branches few; generally mainland
                  39. Perianth hairy; s Central Coast, n South Coast, n Channel Islands
E. cinereum
                  39' Perianth glabrous; Central Coast, South Coast
E. parvifolium
                38' Inflorescence branches many; Channel Islands
                  40. Leaf 2–5 cm, linear, rolled under
E. arborescens
                  40' Leaf 2–10 cm, ± elliptic to ovate, flat
E. giganteum
                    41. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to oblong — San Clemente Island
var. formosum
                    41' Leaf blade generally ± ovate
                      42. Plant < 100 cm; inflorescence dense or open; Santa Barbara Island
var. compactum
                      42' Plant generally 150–350 cm; inflorescence open; Santa Catalina Island
var. giganteum
            33' Involucres solitary (1 per node); mainland
              43. Inflorescence with definable main axes (± unevenly branched, side branches smaller)
                44. Inflorescence ± tiered or pagoda-shaped; outer perianth lobes narrowed to base — Tehachapi Mountain Area, Desert
E. plumatella
                44' Inflorescence generally ± funnel-shaped, not tiered; outer perianth lobe bases ± cordate
2 E. heermannii
                  45. Inflorescence axes deeply grooved — limestone cliffs, Desert Mountains
var. sulcatum
                  45' Inflorescence axes round
                    46. Inflorescence axes thinly tomentose; e Desert Mountains
var. floccosum
                    46' Inflorescence axes ± glabrous; widespread
                      47. Plant generally 10–50 cm, low, spreading; leaves generally oblanceolate to spoon-shaped
                        48. Flower 1.5–2.5 mm; limestone cliffs, Desert Mountains
var. argense
                        48' Flower 2.5–3 mm; gravel, especially East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains
var. humilius
                      47' Plant generally 50–200 cm, erect, ± rounded; leaves generally ± lanceolate
                        49. Leaf 5–15 mm, both surfaces remaining ± tomentose; inflorescence generally dense; s California Floristic Province
var. heermannii
                        49' Leaf 15–40 mm, generally shedding above; inflorescence generally ± open; s Inner South Coast Ranges
var. occidentale
              43' Inflorescence axis not evident above first node, branches ± even
                50. Perianth and fruit hairy
                  51. Perianth yellow; s Sonoran Desert
E. deserticola
                  51' Perianth white; Klamath Ranges
E. pendulum
                50' Perianth and fruit glabrous
                  52. Large, ± erect shrub; leaf blade elliptic to oblong, 10–30 mm
                    53. Inflorescence branches stout, ± spreading (see 44' for vars.); widespread
2 E. heermannii
                    53' Inflorescence open, branches fragile; Great Basin Floristic Province
2 E. nummulare
                  52' Low, spreading shrub or subshrub; leaf blade linear to narrowly elliptic, 3–20 mm
                    54. Leaf 4–6 mm, linear, strongly rolled under; eastern Desert Mountains
E. ericifolium
                    54' Leaf 3–25 mm, generally ± oblanceolate, often ± flat; Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert (vars. difficult)
E. microthecum
                      55. Largest leaves generally 15–25 mm, nearly flat
                        56. Perianth yellowish; hairs generally ± white or gray; eastern Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
var. ambiguum
                        56' Perianth white to pink or red-brown; hairs often pale red-brown; San Bernardino Mountains, s East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
                          57. Upper leaves generally largest, nearly flat; inflorescence dense, flat-topped; perianth generally brownish; San Bernardino Mountains
var. corymbosoides
                          57' Upper leaves smaller, strongly rolled under; inflorescence ± open, not very flat-topped; perianth white to pink
var. simpsonii
                      55' Largest leaves generally 3–15 mm, generally distinctly rolled under
                        58. Plant generally 20–60 cm; especially Great Basin Floristic Province, n Desert Mountains
                          59. Leaf generally 8–12 mm, generally barely rolled under
var. laxiflorum
                          59' Leaf generally 5–8(15) mm, strongly rolled under
var. panamintense
                        58' Plant 4–15 cm; High Sierra Nevada, eastern Transverse Ranges, s White and Inyo Mountains (var. alpinum complex)
                          60. Inflorescence ± open, main axes generally 2–4 cm; leaf generally ± densely tomentose above; s White and Inyo Mountains, rare
var. lapidicola
                          60' Inflorescence compact, main axes generally < 1 cm; leaf generally thinly hairy above; c High Sierra Nevada, e Transverse Ranges, n East of Sierra Nevada
                            61. Leaf oblanceolate; perianth white to rose; c High Sierra Nevada, s East of Sierra Nevada
var. alpinum
                            61' Leaf elliptic to ovate; perianth ± brownish; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains
var. johnstonii
      29' Perennial (at most somewhat woody above caudex)
        62. Most involucres sessile, lateral; inflorescence branches long, ± wand-like
          63. Involucre 6–7 mm; plant 60–180 cm — Central Western California, Southwestern California
E. elongatum var. elongatum
          63' Involucre 2–5 mm; plant often < 50 cm
            64. Leaf blade oblong to round; White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains
E. panamintense
            64' Leaf blade linear to elliptic; California
4 E. wrightii
              65. Matted per or subshrub; especially Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges
                66. Plant densely matted, 1–6 cm; leaf blade 1–2 mm; involucre ± 2 mm; s Sierra Nevada; rare
var. olanchense
                66' Plant loosely matted, 10–30 cm; leaf blade 5–12 mm; involucre 1.5–4 mm; Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains; common
var. subscaposum
              65' Shrub or subshrub, not matted; especially Desert, Northwestern California
                67. Leaf woolly; inflorescence axes stout, rigid, densely gray-woolly — Sonoran Desert; uncommon
var. nodosum
                67' Leaf tomentose (especially below); inflorescence generally slender, glabrous to white-, red- or green-tomentose
                  68. Leaf blade generally 2–10 mm, strongly rolled under; base of petiole fully ringing stem; Peninsular Ranges
var. membranaceum
                  68' Leaf blade generally 5–30 mm, ± flat; base of petiole not fully ringing stem; Northwestern California, Mojave Desert
                    69. Leaf blade 15–30 mm; involucre 2–3 mm; perianth 3–4 mm; Northwestern California
var. trachygonum
                    69' Leaf blade generally 5–15 mm; involucre 2–2.5 mm; perianth 2.5–3.5 mm; Mojave Desert
var. wrightii
        62' Most involucres terminal; inflorescence branches either ± short or ± equal
          70. Leaf blade < 20 mm; ± round; n Sierra Nevada Foothills — inflorescence axis glabrous
E. apricum
            71. Inflorescence erect
var. apricum
            71' Inflorescence prostrate
var. prostratum
          70' Leaf blade generally > 20 mm; often not round; widespread
            72. Leaf erect, blade 40–150 mm, lanceolate
E. elatum
              73. Inflorescence axes and involucres glabrous; Great Basin Floristic Province, Sierra Nevada (eastern slope)
var. elatum
              73' Inflorescence axes and involucres hairy; n California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau
var. villosum
            72' Leaf spreading, blade 20–100 mm, ± ovate to reniform
              74. Inflorescence axes generally tomentose; North Coast, Central Coast
E. latifolium
              74' Inflorescence axes generally glabrous (if tomentose, not coastal)
                75. Involucre < 1.5 mm; perianth densely white-hairy; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert (sometimes annual; see also Group 2)
E. inflatum
                  76. Inflorescence slender; uncommon; s Desert
var. deflatum
                  76' Inflorescence main axes wider below major nodes; common; Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
var. inflatum
                75' Involucre 2–7 mm; perianth (sub)glabrous; California
                  77. Involucre 5–7 mm; Channel Islands
E. grande
                    78. Perianth pink to red; involucre 5–7 mm; plant 15–50 cm — n Channel Islands
var. rubescens
                    78' Perianth white; involucre 4–6 mm; plant 10–220 cm
                      79. Plant 50–220 cm; involucre 5–6 mm; Channel Islands
var. grande
                      79' Plant 10–25 cm; involucre 4–5 mm; s Channel Islands
var. timorum
                  77' Involucre 2–5 mm; mainland
E. nudum
                    80. Inflorescence and involucre tomentose
                      81. Involucre 1(2) per node, 4–6 mm; perianth glabrous, 3–4 mm; San Francisco Bay Area
var. decurrens
                      81' Involucres 3–6 per node, 3–5 mm; perianth hairy, 1.5–4 mm; widespread
                        82. Perianth white, rose, or yellow, hairy; inflorescence spreading; leaves generally 10–40 mm; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, s Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
var. oblongifolium
                        82' Perianth white, densely hairy; inflorescence erect; leaves generally 30–55 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills
var. regirivum
                    80' Inflorescence (and generally involucre) glabrous
                      83. Some leaves ± cauline, margin ± strongly curled
                        84. Leaf densely woolly below, gray-tomentose above; involucres 5–10 per cluster — s Sierra Nevada Foothills
var. murinum
                        84' Leaf tomentose below, ± glabrous above; involucres 1–5 per cluster
                          85. Inflorescence slender; perianth white to pink; Northwestern California, Central Western California, common
var. auriculatum
                          85' Inflorescence main axes inflated; perianth pale yellow; Inner South Coast Ranges, uncommon
var. indictum
                      83' Leaves basal, margins generally nearly flat
                        86. Involucre generally 1(2) per cluster — perianth white; Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
var. pauciflorum
                        86' Involucres (1)2–10 per cluster
                          87. Perianth hairy, yellow or white
                            88. Perianth white; leaf becoming ± glabrous above; n California Floristic Province, Sierra Nevada
var. pubiflorum
                            88' Perianth bright yellow; leaf ± tomentose above; s California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert
var. westonii
                          87' Perianth generally subglabrous, white
                            89. Inflorescence generally a head of 3–6 involucres — c&s High Sierra Nevada, 3000–3800 m
var. scapigerum
                            89' Inflorescence few–many-branched; involucres 1–10 per cluster
                              90. Inflorescence few-branched, involucres ± 5–10 per cluster — n North Coast
var. paralinum
                              90' Inflorescence many-branched, open, involucres 1–6 per cluster
                                91. Leaf generally 10–20 mm; involucres 1–3 per cluster; Sierra Nevada, 1000–3200 m
var. deductum
                                91' Leaf generally 20–50 mm; involucres 2–5 per cluster; n California Floristic Province, < 2300 m
var. nudum

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