Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Heads discoid or disciform; pistillate flowers 0 or << involucre
    2. Pistillate flowers present, corollas inconspicuous
      3. Heads 2–many; stems generally branched near mid-stem or below
        4. Perennial — pappus bristles 12–17
E. aphanactis var. aphanactis
        4' Annual or biennial
          5. Pappus bristles 15–20
E. calvus
          5' Pappus bristles 6–9(12)
3 E. divergens
      3' Heads solitary; stems unbranched
        6. Annual or biennial; pappus bristles 6–9(12)
3 E. divergens
        6' Perennial; pappus bristles 12–25
          7. Leaves 2–3-ternately dissected
2 E. compositus
          7' Leaves entire
            8. Stems minutely glandular; disk corollas generally much wider upward; fruit base ringed whitish; outer pappus of narrow scales or obvious bristles
E. aphanactis var. congestus
            8' Stems glandless; disk corollas narrowly funnel-shaped; fruit base ringed yellowish; outer pappus of minute bristles
E. austiniae
    2' Pistillate flowers 0
      9. Basal leaves present at flowering; cauline leaves much reduced or 0 upward
        10. Caudex simple
E. lassenianus var. deficiens
        10' Caudex branched
          11. Stems ascending, 15–40 cm, sometimes spreading-hairy; caudex branches slender, rhizome-like; basal leaves oblanceolate to spoon-shaped
E. supplex
          11' Stems erect, 5–15 cm, sometimes strigose; caudex branches stout; basal leaves ± linear
E. bloomeri
            12. Herbage and phyllaries strigose
var. bloomeri
            12' Herbage and phyllaries ± glabrous
var. nudatus
      9' Basal leaves 0 at flowering; cauline leaves generally evenly sized and spaced
        13. Glandless stem hairs spreading
          14. Stem hairs dense, short, stiff, slightly reflexed, grayish
E. inornatus var. keilii
          14' Stem hairs sparse to dense, long, ± crinkly-spreading, white
            15. Stems 30–90 cm, erect; leaves 20–40 mm; heads 12–15 mm diam
2 E. biolettii
            15' Stems 5–20(30) cm, decumbent or ascending; leaves 7–25 mm; heads 7–12 mm diam
              16. Inner phyllaries 3.5–5 mm
E. miser
              16' Inner phyllaries 5.5–7 mm
E. petrophilus
                17. Herbage ± nonglandular; hairs stiff, straight or curved
var. viscidulus
                17' Herbage densely glandular; nonglandular hairs generally loose, often crinkly
                  18. Phyllaries distinctly expanded and purplish near tip
var. petrophilus
                  18' Phyllary tips like lower portions
var. sierrensis
        13' Glandless stem hairs 0-sparse, appressed
          19. Phyllaries glabrous
E. inornatus
            20. Stems 10–20 cm, decumbent to ascending; hairs below middle spreading to reflexed; lower and middle leaf blades and margins stiffly spreading-hairy; inner phyllaries 5–6.5 mm
var. calidipetris
            20' Stems 30–90 cm, ascending; hairs below middle appressed; lower and middle leaf blades and margins generally short-strigose; inner phyllaries 4.5–5.5 mm
var. inornatus
          19' Phyllaries glandular (sometimes sparsely nonglandular)
            21. Herbage glandular; leaves narrowly oblanceolate
2 E. biolettii
            21' Herbage nonglandular; leaves linear to oblanceolate
              22. Leaves ± oblanceolate; stems long-ascending from woody taproot
E. inornatus var. inornatus
              22' Leaves linear; stems from caudex or thin, rhizome-like branches
                23. Stems 30–90 cm, many, from woody caudex
E. angustatus
                23' Stems 8–20(30) cm, arising singly from slender, rhizome-like caudex branches
E. reductus
                  24. Phyllary tips generally purplish (variable n Central Coast); pappus bristles (38)46–61
var. angustatus
                  24' Phyllary tips greenish; pappus bristles 20–30
var. reductus
  1' Heads radiate; pistillate flowers with obvious ligules
    25. Annual from shallow fibrous roots; ray pappus 0
      26. Stem hairs spreading; leaves generally coarsely toothed
E. annuus
      26' Stem hairs appressed; leaves generally entire
E. strigosus
    25' Perennial from woody taproot, branched caudex, or rhizome; ray pappus present
      27. Leaves 1–4-ternately dissected
        28. Leaves 2–4-ternately dissected; ligules < 1 mm wide; caudex branches thick, ascending
2 E. compositus
        28' Leaves deeply 3-lobed at tip; ligules 1–2 mm wide; caudex branches thin, rhizome-like
E. vagus
      27' Leaves entire to shallowly toothed
        29. Leaf bases hardened, white-shiny, expanded, enclosing lower stem
          30. Caudex branches thick, leaf bases persistent; ligules yellow
E. linearis
          30' Caudex branches slender, rhizome-like, leaf bases not persistent; ligules white to blue
            31. Heads 13–18 mm diam; basal leaves generally 2–5 mm wide; pappus bristles 25–40; phyllary hairs spreading; > 2100 m
E. barbellulatus
            31' Heads 6–11 mm diam; basal leaves generally 0.5–1 mm wide; pappus bristles 20–30; phyllary hairs appressed; 1000–2100 m
E. elegantulus
        29' Leaf bases ± thin, not hardened, barely or not expanded
          32. Fruit ribs 4–8; herbage generally ± silvery, hairs dense, appressed
            33. Fruit ribs 6–8; basal leaves tufted, persistent
E. argentatus
            33' Fruit ribs 4(6); basal leaves generally 0 at flowering
              34. Outer pappus of narrow, conspicuous scales; stems silvery-white
E. parishii
              34' Outer pappus inconspicuous; stems gray-green, hairs ± sparse
E. utahensis
          32' Fruit ribs generally 2 (if more, herbage not silvery)
            35. Phyllaries strongly graded; leaves entire, not clasping, basal 0, cauline generally evenly sized and spaced; inflorescences arising near stem tips (sect. Pycnophyllum)
              36. Stems minutely glandular
E. aequifolius
              36' Stems not glandular
                37. Stem hairs dense, crinkly; fruit glabrous
E. blochmaniae
                37' Stems hairs 0 to dense, straight, stiffly spreading to ± reflexed or appressed; fruit sparsely strigose
                  38. Stem hairs dense, stiffly spreading, generally slightly reflexed
E. breweri
                    39. Phyllaries densely glandular, glandless hairs 0 or very sparse
                      40. Stems 7–15 cm, prostrate to decumbent; leaves 5–12 mm
var. jacinteus
                      40' Stems generally > 20 cm, ascending to erect; leaves generally > 15 mm
                        41. Herbage hairs 0.1–0.3 mm; inner phyllary tips green; stems from rhizome-like bases
var. breweri
                        41' Herbage hairs 0.5–1 mm; inner phyllary tips widely, white-thick-margined; stems from woody basal offsets and roots
var. klamathensis
                    39' Phyllaries not or barely glandular, glandless hairs prominent
                      42. Stems 20–30 cm, wiry, brittle; phyllary hairs long, thick-based, stiffly spreading, translucent (also some glandular)
var. porphyreticus
                      42' Stems (30)40–75 cm, not wiry or brittle; phyllary hairs short, white, ± appressed, glandless
                        43. Phyllary hairs thin-based, ± appressed, slightly less dense on inner phyllaries
var. bisanctus
                        43' Phyllary hairs thick-based, ascending, much less dense on middle and inner phyllaries
var. covillei
                  38' Stem hairs ± 0 or sparse, appressed
                    44. Stems prostrate to decumbent, from slender rhizomes
E. elmeri
                    44' Stems ascending to erect, from woody taproot
                      45. Ray flowers 9–13; ciliate hairs thin-based; phyllaries minutely nonglandular, densely sessile-glandular
E. serpentinus
                      45' Ray flowers 15–50; ciliate hairs thick-based; phyllaries glandular or nonglandular
                        46. Phyllaries ± nonglandular, 0.5–0.8 mm wide, margins generally thick or narrowly scarious
                          47. Leaves 2–4(5) cm, oriented variously; inner phyllaries 3.2–4.5 mm
E. foliosus var. foliosus
                          47' Leaves (3)4–6 cm, often ± oriented to 1 side of stem; inner phyllaries (4)5–6 mm
                            48. Stems 30–85 cm; axillary leaf-tufts 0; leaves 35–80 mm, 1–2(4) mm wide; inner phyllaries not strongly scarious; ray flowers 26–50
E. foliosus var. hartwegii
                            48' Stems 15–20 cm; axillary leaf-tufts present; leaves 25–45 mm, (2)5–8 mm wide; inner phyllary margins strongly scarious; ray flowers 18–22
E. mariposanus
                        46' Phyllaries minutely but prominently glandular, 0.8–1 mm wide, margins generally widely scarious -> part of E. foliosus
                          49. Phyllary hairs all glandular; leaves generally 1–2 mm wide
var. confinis
                          49' Phyllary hairs ± dense, glandless; leaves generally 2–4 mm wide
                            50. Leaf blades ± strigose; phyllary midvein raised, orange-resinous; ray corollas 7–10 mm
var. franciscensis
                            50' Leaf blades ± glabrous (ciliate); phyllary midvein generally not raised or orange-resinous; ray corollas 10–15 mm
var. mendocinus
            35' Phyllaries generally ± equal; leaves entire to lobed, sometimes clasping, basal sometimes present, cauline often strongly reduced upwards; inflorescences arising near mid-stem
              51. Cauline leaves ± clasping; plants fibrous-rooted, generally from obvious lateral rhizomes
                52. Glandless phyllary hairs with black cross-walls
E. coulteri
                52' Glandless phyllary hairs with clear cross-walls
                  53. Biennial or short-lived perennial herb, generally not rhizomed; ray flowers 150–400
E. philadelphicus
                  53' Perennial; ray flowers 30–165
                    54. Leaves thick, fleshy, entire or toothed; coastal habitats
E. glaucus
                    54' Leaves ± thin, entire; inland habitats
                      55. Phyllary hairs dense, all glandular
                        56. Stems glabrous; ray flowers 20–30(45)
E. cervinus
                        56' Stems ± appressed-hairy; ray flowers 30–105
E. peregrinus
                          57. Herbage strigose
var. callianthemus
                          57' Herbage spreading-hairy
var. hirsutus
                      55' Phyllary hairs prominent, glandless (sometimes also glandular)
                        58. Stems from thin, often stolon-like caudex branches with few fibrous roots
E. sanctarum
                        58' Stems from short, thick, strongly fibrous-rooted rhizomes
                          59. Stems 2–20(30) cm, hairs spreading; phyllaries blackish purple; pappus bristles 12–16(20)
2 E. algidus
                          59' Stems 30–100 cm, hairs appressed; phyllaries greenish; pappus bristles 20–30
E. aliceae
              51' Cauline leaves not at all clasping; plants taprooted
                60. Stems spreading-hairy
                  61. Annual from slender taproot; caudex generally simple; stems branched; heads many
                    62. Stems and phyllaries densely, evenly puberulent, hairs < 0.5 mm
E. divergens
                    62' Stems and phyllaries glandular-puberulent, also sparsely spreading-hairy (hairs 0.5–2 mm)
E. lobatus
                  61' Perennial from rhizome or stout taproot and branched caudex; stems generally unbranched; head 1
                    63. Leaf blades clearly petioled
                      64. Basal leaves 20–70 mm; cauline leaves much reduced; stems 4–30 cm; phyllaries blackish-purple; ray flowers (30)50–125, ligules 7–13 mm
2 E. algidus
                      64' Basal leaves 5–25 mm; cauline leaves 0; stems 1–4 cm; phyllaries green; ray flowers 15–40, ligules 4–6 mm
E. uncialis var. uncialis
                    63' Leaves linear or gradually tapered to base, petiole indistinct
                      65. Margins of lower leaves generally hairy but not stiffly spreading-ciliate; > 2200 m
                        66. Basal leaves 20–80 mm; stems ± nonglandular; phyllaries green; ray flowers 25–55, ligules 6–11 mm
E. clokeyi
                        66' Basal leaves 6–35 mm; stems densely glandular; phyllaries blackish purple; ray flowers 20–37, ligules 4–7(10) mm
E. pygmaeus
                      65' Margins of lower leaves stiffly long-spreading-ciliate; 1200–1800 m
                        67. Disk corollas (sub)glabrous; pappus bristles 12–22; outer pappus of bristles or narrow scales; ray flowers (40)55–115, ligules 8–12 mm
E. pumilus var. intermedius
                        67' Disk corollas sharply scabrous; pappus bristles 5–15; outer pappus of wide scales; rays 40–60, ligules 7–9 mm
E. concinnus
                          68. Stems leafy; heads many
var. concinnus
                          68' Stems ± leafless; head 1
var. condensatus
                60' Stems glabrous or appressed-hairy
                  69. Ray flowers 75–125; disk corolla throats wide
E. multiceps
                  69' Ray flowers 14–80; disk corollas cylindric, throat ± 0
                    70. Leaves few-toothed near tip, basal 0, only upper cauline reduced; axillary leaf-tufts present; ray flowers 45–80
E. karvinskianus
                    70' Leaves entire, basal generally persistent, cauline reduced; axillary leaf-tufts 0; ray flowers 14–45
                      71. Basal leaves linear
                        72. Stems 2–8 cm, leafless; stem hairs straight, appressed; basal leaves generally 1–3 cm; fruit ribs densely ciliate, faces glabrous
E. compactus
                        72' Stems 15–30 cm, leafy below; stem hairs curved up, ± loose; basal leaves generally 2–7 cm; fruit ribs and faces sparsely hairy
E. filifolius var. filifolius
                      71' Basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate to spoon-shaped
                        73. Plants cespitose; caudex stout, branched; basal leaves spoon-shaped, petioled; cauline leaves abruptly reduced
E. tener
                        73' Plants not cespitose, caudex generally slender; basal leaves narrowly oblanceolate, petiole indistinct; cauline leaves gradually reduced
                          74. Leaves generally 1-veined
E. lassenianus var. lassenianus
                          74' Leaves generally 3-veined
                            75. Stems 25–55 cm; heads (1)2–4; basal leaves generally 0 at flowering
E. decumbens var. robustior
                            75' Stems 4–15(30) cm; heads 1–2(7); basal leaves persistent at flowering
E. eatonii
                              76. Heads (14)17–23 mm diam; longest phyllaries 7–11 mm; disk corollas 4.4–6.8 mm
var. nevadincola
                              76' Heads 8–16 mm diam; longest phyllaries 5–8 mm; disk corollas 3–5 mm
                                77. Stems 10–23 cm; disk corollas 3–4 mm; pappus bristles 16–20, 3–3.5 mm
var. plantagineus
                                77' Stems 4–12(21) cm; disk corollas 3.5–5 mm; pappus bristles 18–30, 3.5–5 mm
var. sonnei

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