Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    
 

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to EPILOBIUM

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Leaves alternate; hypanthium 0; petals entire; stamens subequal, in 1 whorl; pollen bluish gray, grains shed singly (sect. Chamaenerion)
 
    2. Bracts << cauline leaves, ± linear; leaf veins conspicuous; petioles 2–7 mm; sepals 7–16 mm; petals 10–25 mm
E. angustifolium subsp. circumvagum
    2' Bracts little reduced, lanceolate; leaf veins obscure; petioles 0–3 mm; sepals 10–24 mm; petals 13–32 mm
E. latifolium
  1' Leaves opposite at least at base; hypanthium 0.3–34 mm; petals notched; stamens in 2 unequal whorls; pollen cream, grains generally shed in 4's
 
    3. Annual; leaves opposite only near base; lower stem peeling; seed hair-tuft 0 (sect. Boisduvalia)
 
      4. Fruit wall tough, ± indehiscent below; seeds in 2 rows per chamber
 
        5. Fruit 8–12 mm, sharply 4-angled
E. cleistogamum
        5' Fruit 5–8 mm, cylindric
E. pygmaeum
      4' Fruit wall flexible, dehiscent to base; seeds in 1 row per chamber
 
        6. Fruit not beaked, central axis remaining intact
E. densiflorum
        6' Fruit beaked, central axis disintegrating
 
          7. Sepals 2–6 mm, petals 4–11 mm; fruit 14–19 mm; seeds in 1 staggered row, 1.8–2 mm
E. pallidum
          7' Sepals 0.7–2 mm, petals 1–3 mm; fruit 8–13 mm; seeds in 4 rows, 1–1.5 mm
E. torreyi
    3' Annual to subshrub; leaves generally opposite up to inflorescence; lower stem generally not peeling; seeds hair-tufted
 
      8. Hypanthium 17–34 mm; corolla red-orange, ± bilateral (sect. Zauschneria)
 
        9. Matted per 1–2 dm; leaves not clustered; lower leaves white-canescent; Northwestern California
E. septentrionale
        9' Clumped perennial herbs to subshrub 1–9 dm; leaves clustered or not, mostly not white-canescent; widespread California Floristic Province
E. canum
          10. Leaves linear to lanceolate, often clustered; perennial herbs to subshrub 2–9 dm
subsp. canum
          10' Leaves widely lanceolate to ovate, not clustered; perennial herb 1–5 dm
subsp. latifolium
      8' Hypanthium generally 0.4–8(16) mm; corolla white to purple (sect. Epilobium)
 
        11. Annual; stem peeling below; leaves ± narrowly lanceolate, upper often clustered
 
          12. Plant 2–20 dm, ± glandular; hypanthium 1.5–16 mm, sepals 2–8 mm, petals 2–15 mm; seed 1.4–2.7 mm
E. brachycarpum
          12' Plant 0.5–4 dm, nonglandular; hypanthium 0.4–1 mm, sepals 1.5–4 mm, petals 1.8–5 mm; seed 0.6–1.2 mm
 
            13. Leaves generally folded along midrib, upper clustered; inflorescence dense; petals 1.8–2.5 mm; seeds 0.6–0.9 mm, papillate
E. foliosum
            13' Leaves flat, not clustered; inflorescence open; petals 2–5 mm; seeds 0.8–1.2 mm, netted
E. minutum
        11' Perennial from caudex; stem not peeling; leaves (narrowly) lanceolate to ovate, not clustered
 
          14. Stigma 4-lobed; sepals (3)6–15 mm; petals (6)10–24 mm, pink to rose-purple or cream
 
            15. Petals cream-yellow; seed hairs reddish, persistent; fruit 35–75 mm
E. luteum
            15' Petals pink to rose-purple; seed hairs white, deciduous; fruit 8–45 mm
 
              16. Stem 4–10 dm; leaf 30–90 mm, veins reddish, conspicuous; seed 0.9–1.3 mm, ridged
E. oreganum
              16' Stem < 4 dm; leaf 6–45 mm, veins obscure; seed 1.4–3.4 mm, papillate
 
                17. Petals 6–10 mm; seeds 2 per chamber (8 per fruit); fruit 8–16 mm
E. nivium
                17' Petals 11–24 mm; seeds > 8 per chamber; fruit 20–45 mm
 
                  18. Plant 1–4 dm, nonglandular; leaf 20–45 mm, petiole 2–6 mm; hypanthium 1–1.8 mm; seed 2.5–3.4 mm
E. rigidum
                  18' Plant < 2.5 dm, sometimes glandular (especially ovaries); leaf 6–26 mm, petiole 0–3 mm; hypanthium 2–6 mm; seed 1.4–2.1 mm
 
                    19. Pedicel in fruit 2–3 mm; leaf 6–20 mm, tip round to obtuse, petiole 0–3 mm; plant ± glaucous
E. obcordatum
                    19' Pedicel in fruit 6–25 mm; leaf 13–26 mm, tip ± acute; petiole 0; plant not glaucous
E. siskiyouense
          14' Stigma entire, club- or head-like; sepals 1–7.5 mm; petals 1.6–14 mm, white to rose-purple
 
            20. Stem ± erect, with offset rosettes or fleshy underground shoots
 
              21. Leaf veins ± obscure; stem with fleshy shoot; seed papillate
 
                22. Pedicel in fruit 10–40 mm; inflorescence ± nodding; leaf 5–45 mm
E. hallianum
                22' Pedicel in fruit 0–5 mm; inflorescence erect; leaf 10–65 mm
E. saximontanum
              21' Leaf veins conspicuous; stem with rosette or fleshy shoot; seed ridged
E. ciliatum
                23. Petals 2–6(9) mm, white to pink; leaf lanceolate, reduced in open inflorescence — stem with basal rosette
subsp. ciliatum
                23' Petals 4–15 mm, pink to rose-purple; leaf lanceolate to ovate, little reduced on crowded inflorescence
 
                  24. Stem with fleshy shoot; inflorescence long
subsp. glandulosum
                  24' Stem with leafy rosette; inflorescence ± flat-topped
subsp. watsonii
            20' Stems ± ascending, clumped or cespitose; leafy or thread-like stolons sometimes tipped by fleshy bulblets
 
              25. Plant subglabrous (except scattered inflorescence hairs)
 
                26. Plant < 3.5 dm, matted; stolons thread-like; pedicels 20–65 mm; inflorescence open (bracts << internodes); leaf tip round to obtuse
E. oregonense
                26' Plant < 8.5 dm, clumped; stolons short, scaly; pedicels 5–25 mm; inflorescence crowded (bracts ± = internodes); leaf tip subacute
E. glaberrimum
                  27. Stem < 3.5 dm; leaf 10–35 mm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; fruit 20–55 mm
subsp. fastigiatum
                  27' Stem 2–8.5 dm; leaf 20–70 mm, ± narrowly lanceolate; fruit 45–75 mm
subsp. glaberrimum
              25' Plant variously hairy, often in decurrent lines on stem
 
                28. Stem densely glandular-hairy; petals 2–3 mm, white
E. howellii
                28' Stem hairy, nonglandular; petals 2–9 mm, white or pink
 
                  29. Stolons thread-like, tipped by fleshy bulblets; leaf ± narrowly lanceolate; seed 1.4–2.2 mm, hairs persistent
 
                    30. Leaf densely minutely strigose; inflorescence minutely strigose and glandular
E. leptophyllum
                    30' Leaf minutely strigose only on margins and midrib; inflorescence minutely strigose, nonglandular
E. palustre
                  29' Stolons short, leafy; leaf generally lanceolate or wider; seeds 0.7–2.1 mm, hair-tuft generally deciduous
 
                    31. Plant cespitose, < 2.2 dm; leaf 8–28 mm; fruit 17–40 mm
 
                      32. Inflorescence ± nodding; pedicel in fruit 10–55 mm; seed 0.7–1.4 mm, netted — hair-tuft persistent
E. anagallidifolium
                      32' Inflorescence erect; pedicel in fruit 2–18 mm; seed 1.5–2.1 mm, papillate
E. clavatum
                    31' Plant loosely clumped, 1–5 dm; leaf 15–55 mm; fruit 40–100 mm
 
                      33. Pedicel in fruit 5–15 mm; fruit 40–65 mm; seed 0.9–1.2 mm, papillate; petals generally pink to rose-purple
E. hornemannii subsp. hornemannii
                      33' Pedicel in fruit 20–45 mm; fruit 50–100 mm; seed 1.1–1.6 mm, netted; petals generally white
E. lactiflorum


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