Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Stem 1; stolons with tubers; fruit seldom maturing
    2. Flower bracts yellow-brown to brown
C. esculentus
    2' Flower bracts ± dark red to purple
C. rotundus
  1' Stems generally > 1, clumped or not; stolons, tubers 0; fruit maturing
    3. Fruit lenticular; stigmas 2
      4. Fruit face next to spikelet axis
C. laevigatus
      4' Fruit angle next to spikelet axis
        5. Annual; rhizomes 0; spikelets in open spikes; flower bracts brown or ± red-brown; fruit (ob)ovoid, black
C. bipartitus
        5' Perennial; rhizomes short; spikelets generally in head-like spikes; flower bracts light brown to black; fruit ovoid to elliptic, brown
C. niger
    3' Fruit 3-angled; stigmas 3
      6. Tip of flower bract outcurved, narrowly acute or bristle-like
        7. Flower bract 3-veined; fruit widest ± near middle
C. acuminatus
        7' Flower bract 5–11-veined; fruit widest just below tip
C. squarrosus
      6' Tip of flower bract not outcurved, acute, obtuse, or rounded, sometimes with small point but not bristle-like
        8. Basal leaf blades 0; inflorescence bracts (10)14–22
C. involucratus
        8' Basal leaf blades present; inflorescence bracts 1–12
          9. Flower bract < 1.1 mm; annual; rhizomes 0
            10. Spikelets 50–100+ in dense heads
C. difformis
            10' Spikelets 3–15 in open heads
C. fuscus
          9' Flower bract 1.3–4 mm; annual or perennial herb; rhizomes generally present
            11. Fruit body ± as long as wide, stalked
C. eragrostis
            11' Fruit body 1.5–3 × longer than wide, ± sessile
              12. Spikelets flat; flower bract reddish
C. parishii
              12' Spikelets slightly flat or subcylindric; flower bract brown, light reddish brown, or yellowish
                13. Stem densely bumpy or warty; spikelets in dense, cylindric spikes
C. ligularis
                13' Stem smooth; spikelets in open, ovoid to cylindric spikes
                  14. Flower bract 1.3–1.5 mm; fruit 0.7–1 mm
C. erythrorhizos
                  14' Flower bract 2–4 mm; fruit 1.5–2.4 mm
                    15. Annual; stem base not corm-like; flower bract persistent, light brown splotched reddish, midvein green; spikelet axis jointed at each bract, spikelet falling apart
C. odoratus
                    15' Perennial; stem base corm-like; flower bract yellowish, persistent or not; spikelet axis continuous, spikelet falling as unit
C. strigosus

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