Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Lateral leaf lobes 8–10, paired; calyx << 1/2 corolla, divided > 1/2; anther sacs 2, widely separated (subg. Dicranostegia)
C. orcuttianus
  1' Leaf entire to ± palmately 3–7-lobed; calyx generally entire to divided ± 1/3 in back, ± = corolla; anther sacs 1 (or if 2, ± overlapping)
    2. Leaf ± oblong to lanceolate, entire; inflorescence a spike, 20–150 mm; middle lobe of lower corolla lip erect, not rolled under; saline or alkaline places (subg. Hemistegia)
      3. Stamens 4; inner bract entire or notched
C. maritimus
        4. Inner bract generally entire; seeds 25–40, 1–1.5 mm; inland
subsp. canescens
        4' Inner bract notched; seeds 10–20, 2–3 mm; generally coastal
          5. Stem generally much-branched, upper branches > central spike; seeds ± 2 mm; South Coast
subsp. maritimus
          5' Stem few-branched, branches < or = central spike; seeds 2–3 mm; North Coast, Central Coast
subsp. palustris
      3' Stamens 2; inner bract 3–7-lobed
        6. Leaf 1–2 mm wide; inner bract 3-lobed; style puberulent
C. tecopensis
        6' Leaf 3–8 mm wide; inner bract 3–7-lobed; style glabrous
          7. Plant soft-hairy (or becoming glabrous), longest hairs < 1 mm; seed coat deeply netted, wavy-crested
C. palmatus
          7' Plant (especially inflorescence) stiff-hairy, longest hairs > 1 mm; seed coat netted, not wavy-crested
C. mollis
            8. Plant bristly; stem much-branched from near base; inflorescence generally 2–6 cm; corolla pouch and tube sparsely tomentose; seed 1–1.5 mm; Great Central Valley
subsp. hispidus
            8' Plant generally ± soft-hairy; stem few-branched from middle; inflorescence 5–15 cm; corolla pouch and tube densely tomentose; seed 2–3 mm; n Central Coast
subsp. mollis
    2' Leaf thread-like to linear, entire to subpalmately 7-lobed; inflorescence a spike < 20 mm or flowers solitary (but often clustered); middle lobe of lower corolla lip tightly rolled under; nonsaline places (subg. Cordylanthus)
      9. Corolla > 3 × longer than wide; seed (shallowly) netted; especially Great Basin Floristic Province and Desert in sagebrush or juniper scrub
        10. Calyx divided to base; corolla ± dusty yellow
C. ramosus
        10' Calyx tube 1–4 mm; corolla generally pink to maroon (yellowish)
          11. Stamens 2; calyx tip divided < 1/3 — Modoc Plateau
C. capitatus
          11' Stamens 4; calyx tip shallowly notched
            12. Plant canescent, not glandular-sticky; outer bracts 3–7-lobed
C. eremicus
              13. Outer bracts sparsely scabrous, tips slightly wider, with maroon thickening
subsp. eremicus
              13' Outer bracts distinctly bristly, tips acute, unmarked
subsp. kernensis
            12' Plant densely glandular-sticky; outer bracts generally 3- or 5-lobed
              14. Inflorescence a short spike; corolla lips ± equal; inner bract pinnately lobed; s Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada
C. kingii subsp. helleri
              14' Flowers solitary, scattered; lower corolla lip << upper; inner bract generally entire; e Desert Mountains
C. parviflorus
      9' Corolla 2–3 × longer than wide; seed finely wavy-striate; especially California Floristic Province in foothill woodland
        15. Outer bracts fan-shaped, shallowly 3–7-lobed; inner bract and calyx tips rough-papillate; corolla < 10 mm, pouch sides yellow — serpentine, North Coast Ranges
C. pringlei
        15' Outer bracts entire to deeply 3-lobed; inner bract scabrous to puberulent; corolla 10–20 mm, pouch sides ± white
          16. Anther sac 1 (+ bearded vestige) per stamen; calyx tube ± 1 mm; outer bracts 3-lobed, << flower — Southwestern California
C. nevinii
          16' Anther sacs 2 per stamen; calyx generally divided to base (except C. rigidus); outer bracts entire or 3-lobed, generally = or > flower
            17. Plant ± bristly (except subsp. littoralis); flowers solitary but densely clustered in 5–15-flowered heads; calyx tube < 2 mm; corolla maroon in U-shape on lower side
C. rigidus
              18. Outer bract << flower, generally 5–10 mm, middle lobe oblong — sw Sierra Nevada
subsp. brevibracteatus
              18' Outer bract generally > flower, 15–20 mm, middle lobe linear to lanceolate
                19. Middle lobe of outer bract linear, tip wider, notched, maroon-thickened, marginal bristles > 2 × lobe width — Southwestern California
subsp. setigerus
                19' Middle lobe of outer bract generally ± lanceolate, tip not wider (or ± truncate and green-, whitish-, or faintly maroon-thickened) marginal bristles ± = lobe width
                  20. Plant puberulent or soft-hairy; outer bract weakly ciliate and puberulent, tip of middle lobe tapered; dunes, c&s Central Coast
subsp. littoralis
                  20' Plant bristly; outer bracts scabrous, tip of middle lobe parallel-sided or widening; especially chaparral and woodland, c&s Sierra Nevada, c&s Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges
subsp. rigidus
            17' Plant soft-hairy or becoming glabrous; flowers solitary but generally in ± loose 1–7-flowered clusters; calyx divided to base; corolla streaked or blotched maroon
              21. Stem decumbent, branches ascending < 15 cm; outer bracts 3-lobed near base — serpentine, ne San Francisco Bay Area
C. nidularius
              21' Stem erect, branches ascending generally > 20 cm; outer bracts entire or 3-lobed in upper 2/3
                22. Main stem densely long-soft-hairy; tips of outer bracts (or middle lobes) > 1.5 mm wide, longest hairs 2–3 mm; corolla barely marked maroon
C. pilosus
                  23. Outer bracts entire (tip wider, obtuse to 2-notched); North Coast Ranges, n San Francisco Bay Area
subsp. pilosus
                  23' Outer bracts 3-lobed; Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
                    24. Outer bracts lobed in upper 1/3, lateral lobes < 3 mm; corolla = or > calyx and inner bract
subsp. hansenii
                    24' Outer bracts lobed in lower 1/2; lateral lobes > 3 mm; corolla < calyx and inner bract
subsp. trifidus
                22' Main stem ± glabrous to sparsely stiff-hairy or ± glandular; tips of outer bracts (or middle lobes) < 1.5 mm wide, longest hairs < 2 mm; corolla heavily blotched maroon
C. tenuis
                  25. Stem glabrous or minutely puberulent; leaves (or lobes) thread-like, tightly folded up, generally ± glabrous; serpentine outcrops — s North Coast Ranges
                    26. Outer bracts entire; stems minutely and sparsely glandular, especially below flowers
subsp. brunneus
                    26' Outer bracts 3-lobed; stems ± glabrous (not glandular below flowers) — sw Outer North Coast Ranges
subsp. capillaris
                  25' Stem generally puberulent and stiff-hairy (or sticky); leaves (or lobes) linear to ± oblong, flat to channeled, puberulent and generally glandular; generally not serpentine
                    27. Flowers 3–7 in dense clusters; outer bracts generally 3-lobed, densely soft-hairy; longest hairs of inner bract > 2 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills
subsp. barbatus
                    27' Flowers 1–6 in loose clusters; outer bracts entire or 3-lobed, ± stiff-hairy; longest hairs of inner bract < 1 mm
                      28. Outer bracts entire; Sierra Nevada
subsp. tenuis
                      28' Outer bracts 3-lobed; n California
                        29. Bracts and calyx yellow-green, puberulent, weakly glandular; flowers generally 3–6 per cluster — High Cascade Range
subsp. pallescens
                        29' Bracts and calyx green or maroon-tinged, glandular, puberulent and with long, stiff hairs; flowers 1–3 per cluster
subsp. viscidus

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