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The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to CLARKIA

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Fruit 2–3 mm, nut-like, indehiscent, 1–2-seeded
C. heterandra
  1' Fruit > 5 mm, not nut-like, dehiscent, many-seeded
 
    2. Petal blade lobed above
 
      3. Stamens 4; hypanthium slender, > 10 mm
 
        4. Petal length ± = width, outer lobes wider than middle
C. breweri
        4' Petal length ± 2 × width, lobes ± equally wide
C. concinna
          5. Stigma beyond anthers; petals 15–30 mm
subsp. concinna
          5' Stigma not beyond anthers; petals 10–20 mm
 
            6. Petal lobes prominent, separated by deep sinuses
subsp. automixa
            6' Petal lobes short, not separated by deep sinuses
subsp. raichei
      3' Stamens 8; hypanthium not slender, < 7 mm
 
        7. Petal lobes 2, a tooth between
C. xantiana
          8. Petals 6–12 mm; stigma not beyond anthers
subsp. parviflora
          8' Petals 12–20 mm; stigma beyond anthers
subsp. xantiana
        7' Petal lobes 2, no tooth between
C. biloba
          9. Petals bright pink to magenta, length generally > 1.5 × width
subsp. australis
          9' Petals lavender to pink or purplish pink, length generally not > 1.5 × width
 
            10. Petal lobes generally 1/5–1/2 petal
subsp. biloba
            10' Petal lobes generally < 1/5 petal
C. biloba subsp. brandegeeae
    2' Petal blade not or inconspicuously lobed above (see also C. biloba subsp. brandegeae)
 
      11. Petal claw 2-lobed or -toothed, not entire
 
        12. Petals 6–14 mm; stigma not beyond anthers
 
          13. Petal generally spotted, blade unlobed above
C. rhomboidea
          13' Petal unspotted, blade inconspicuously 3-lobed above
C. stellata
        12' Petals generally > 12 mm; stigma beyond anthers
 
          14. Inflorescence axis in bud recurved < 3 nodes above open flowers; petal length 1.4–1.6 × width
C. mildrediae
          14' Inflorescence axis in bud straight 4 or more nodes above open flowers, recurved at tip; petal length 1.6–3 × width
 
            15. Flower bud fusiform, tip acute
C. borealis
              16. Seed 1.8–2.5 mm; Cascade Range Foothills
subsp. arida
              16' Seed 1.5–1.8 mm; Klamath Ranges
subsp. borealis
            15' Flower bud obovate, tip obtuse
 
              17. Petal length 1.6–2 × width — Butte Co.
C. mosquinii
                18. Leaf elliptic to ovate
C. mosquinii
                18' Leaf linear-lanceolate
C. mosquinii
              17' Petal length 1.9–3 × width
 
                19. Leaf linear-lanceolate
C. australis
                19' Leaf elliptic to ovate
C. virgata
      11' Petal claw ± 0 or entire
 
        20. Inflorescence axis in bud recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds pendent
 
          21. Petals white to pale cream, not darker-flecked or -spotted, fading pink, generally < 10 mm
C. epilobioides
          21' Petals darker than white to pale cream, at least on margin, or darker-flecked or -spotted, generally > 10 mm
 
            22. Anthers alike, tips acute or slender; pollen yellow to ± white
 
              23. Ovary, immature fruit 8-grooved; fruit not wider above
 
                24. Ovary hairs ± sparse; pedicel 5–15 mm
C. arcuata
                24' Ovary hairs dense; pedicel < 3 mm
C. lassenensis
              23' Ovary, immature fruit 4-, rarely 8-grooved; fruit generally wider above
C. gracilis
                25. Petals 6–23 mm, spot 0, base darker or not; stigma not beyond anthers
subsp. gracilis
                25' Petals 20–40 mm, with a red spot near middle or red at base; stigma beyond anthers
 
                  26. Petals with a red spot near middle
subsp. sonomensis
                  26' Petals red at base
 
                    27. Petals generally 3–4 cm; s Cascade Range Foothills
subsp. albicaulis
                    27' Petals generally 2–3 cm; Inner North Coast Ranges
subsp. tracyi
            22' Anthers in 2 unlike series, obtuse at tip, inner generally << outer; inner pollen generally cream, outer generally blue-gray or lavender
 
              28. Petals 6–12 mm; stigma not beyond anthers
 
                29. Petals pink, generally darker-flecked
C. modesta
                29' Petals pale pink shading to ± white near base, purple-flecked
C. similis
              28' Petals 10–35 mm; stigma beyond anthers
 
                30. Petals oblanceolate; corolla rotate
C. lingulata
                30' Petals fan-shaped; corolla bowl-shaped
 
                  31. Ovary, immature fruit 8-grooved; petals generally white-streaked
C. dudleyana
                  31' Ovary, immature fruit 4-grooved; petals darker near tip, shading to white near middle, with a darker line or zone near base
 
                    32. Width of outer filaments ± 2 × inner; ring of hairs in hypanthium below tip
C. cylindrica
                      33. Ovary, fruit wider above
subsp. clavicarpa
                      33' Ovary, fruit cylindric
subsp. cylindrica
                    32' Width of all filaments ± equal; ring of hairs in hypanthium ± at tip
 
                      34. Fruit beak < 3 mm or 0
C. lewisii
                      34' Fruit beak 7–15 mm
C. rostrata
        20' Inflorescence axis in bud generally ± straight; buds erect or reflexed
 
          35. Flower buds reflexed
 
            36. Corolla bowl-shaped; petals ± not clawed
 
              37. Seeds brown; not Monterey Co.
C. bottae
              37' Seeds gray; n Outer South Coast Ranges (Monterey Co.)
C. jolonensis
            36' Corolla rotate; petals clawed
 
              38. Petal claw < blade
C. delicata
              38' Petal claw = or > blade
 
                39. Calyx, ovary sparsely to densely puberulent and with longer, straight, spreading hairs < 3 mm
C. unguiculata
                39' Calyx, ovary sparsely to densely puberulent without longer, straight, spreading hairs < 3 mm
 
                  40. Leaf not glaucous, bright green
C. exilis
                  40' Leaf glaucous, gray-green or reddish
 
                    41. Sepals generally dark red-purple; stigma beyond anthers
C. springvillensis
                    41' Sepals green, red-tinged or not; stigma beyond anthers or not
C. tembloriensis
                      42. Petals ± 10 mm wide; stigma not beyond anthers
subsp. calientensis
                      42' Petals generally < 10 mm wide; stigma beyond anthers or not
subsp. tembloriensis
          35' Flower buds erect
 
            43. Ovary, immature fruit 4-grooved
 
              44. Petals with a ± red spot or zone at base
 
                45. Petals 10–30 mm; stigma beyond anthers
C. rubicunda
                45' Petals 5–13 mm; stigma not beyond anthers
C. franciscana
              44' Petals with a red spot or marks near middle
C. amoena
                46. Stem decumbent; inflorescence internode generally < subtending flower
subsp. amoena
                46' Stem erect; inflorescence internode generally > subtending flower
subsp. huntiana
            43' Ovary, immature fruit 8-grooved
 
              47. Stigma not beyond anthers; petals generally 5–15 mm
 
                48. Stem decumbent to prostrate; leaf oblanceolate, elliptic, or obovate, tip generally obtuse
 
                  49. Petal 5–11 mm, spot 0
C. davyi
                  49' Petal 10–15 mm, spot reddish, above base
C. prostrata
                48' Stem erect; leaf linear to ovate, tip generally acute
 
                  50. Immature fruit length > 9 × width; sepals staying fused in 4's
C. affinis
                  50' Immature fruit length < 8 × width; sepals staying fused in 2's or all coming free
C. purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera
              47' Stigma generally beyond anthers; petals 10–60 mm
 
                51. Ovary, immature fruit fusiform, grooves 8, 4 deeper
C. amoena subsp. whitneyi
                51' Ovary, immature fruit generally ± cylindric, grooves 8, equal
 
                  52. Petals ± without a red or purple spot
 
                    53. Petals dark reddish purple
 
                      54. Sepals fused to tip in bud
2 C. speciosa subsp. speciosa
                      54' Sepals free at tip in bud
2 C. williamsonii
                    53' Petals pink or lavender to purple or purplish red, below often cream or lighter
 
                      55. Inflorescence open; leaf linear to narrow-lanceolate
C. speciosa subsp. immaculata
                      55' Inflorescence dense; leaf wide-lanceolate to elliptic or ovate
2 C. purpurea subsp. purpurea
                  52' Petals generally with a red or purple spot
 
                    56. Petal spot near middle or below
 
                      57. Inflorescence dense; ovary generally > internode above
C. speciosa subsp. nitens
                      57' Inflorescence open; ovary generally < internode above
C. speciosa
                        58. Branches on well developed plants few, many-flowered
subsp. polyantha
                        58' Branches on well developed plants many, few-flowered
subsp. speciosa
                    56' Petal spot above middle
 
                      59. Leaf lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, length generally < 5 × width; inflorescence dense
 
                        60. Hypanthium 10–15 mm, veined; petals 20–25 mm
C. imbricata
                        60' Hypanthium 2–10 mm, ± not veined; petals 10–25 mm
2 C. purpurea subsp. purpurea
                      59' Leaf linear to narrow-lanceolate, length > 5 × width; inflorescence open
 
                        61. Sepals fused to tip in bud
C. purpurea subsp. viminea
                        61' Sepals free at tip in bud
2 C. williamsonii


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