Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    
 

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

    THIS PAGE IS NO LONGER UPDATED
    AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to CHORIZANTHE

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Involucral bracts and awns (or ribs) 3–5
 
    2. Involucral bracts and awns 3
 
      3. Involucral tube cylindric, prominently cross-ridged, glabrous; stamens 6; Desert
C. corrugata
      3' Involucral tube 3-angled, ± bell-shaped or flaring, smooth to moderately cross-ridged, hairy; stamens 9; Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
 
        4. Plant erect; awns of inflorescence and involucral bracts straight — East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
C. rigida
        4' Plant prostrate to decumbent; inflorescence bracts unawned, involucral awns hooked
 
          5. Involucral tube very narrowly flaring, smooth, ± brown; South Coast
C. orcuttiana
          5' Involucral tube bell-shaped, thinly hairy, reddish; Peninsular Ranges
2 C. polygonoides var. longispina
    2' Involucral bracts and awns 4–5
 
      6. Awns straight; perianth 2.5–3.5 mm, glabrous; stamens attached at base of perianth tube; Mojave Desert
C. spinosa
      6' Awns hooked; perianth 1.5–2.5 mm, hairy; stamens attached near top of perianth tube
 
        7. Involucral tube cylindric, 3–4.5 mm, largest bract ± leaf-like; perianth yellow, thinly hairy; Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert, n Western Transverse Ranges
C. watsonii
        7' Involucral tube bell-shaped, 1.5–2.5 mm, bracts not leaf-like; perianth white to rose, densely hairy; California Floristic Province
C. polygonoides
          8. Involucre (including awn) 3–4 mm; Peninsular Ranges
var. longispina
          8' Involucre (including awn) ± 5 mm; n California
var. polygonoides
  1' Involucral bracts and awns (or ribs) 6
 
    9. Involucral bract margin scarious or membranous
 
      10. Involucral bract margin membranous, continuous across sinuses (involucre thus mimicking a fused corolla); true cauline leaves (no inflorescence or involucre in axil) generally present; generally inland California Floristic Province
 
        11. Cauline leaves (and lower bracts) alternate; involucre ± woolly or becoming glabrous, bracts ± equal; perianth 1.5–3 mm, densely hairy — California Floristic Province
C. membranacea
        11' Whorl of true cauline leaves present near mid-stem in most plants; involucre bristly, bracts equal or not; perianth 3.5–5 mm, sparsely hairy
 
          12. 3 involucral bracts >> alternating 3, membrane purple; South Coast Ranges
C. douglasii
          12' 6 involucral bracts ± equal, membrane white; foothills around n&e Great Central Valley
2 C. stellulata
      10' Involucral bract margin scarious, not continuous across sinuses (except sometimes between pairs of erect bracts); true cauline leaves generally 0; ± coastal Central Western California, North Coast (except C. stellulata) (C. pungens complex)
 
        13. Involucral awns straight
 
          14. Plant generally decumbent; involucral bracts spreading, awns brown; perianth 3–4.5 mm; c North Coast
C. howellii
          14' Plant generally ± erect; involucral bracts erect, awns ivory or straw-colored; perianth 4–6 mm; n Central Coast
2 C. valida
        13' Involucral awns hooked
 
          15. Perianth glabrous, lobes white, tube yellow
C. diffusa
          15' Perianth hairy, lobes same color as tube
 
            16. Plant generally erect; whorl of true cauline leaves often present; involucral tube 3–4 mm, bracts clearly margined
 
              17. Plant decumbent to erect, soft-hairy; involucre thinly hairy; perianth 2.5–4 mm; n Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area
C. robusta
              17' Plant strictly erect, coarse-hairy; involucre bristly; perianth 4–5 mm; foothills around n Great Central Valley
2 C. stellulata
            16' Plant prostrate to ascending; cauline leaves 0; involucral tube 1.5–3 mm, bract margins sometimes indistinct
 
              18. Involucral bracts obviously white- to purple-margined, tube 2–3 mm; stamens 9
C. pungens
              18' Involucral bract margins thin, ± indistinct; involucral tube 1.5–2.5 mm; stamens 3–9
 
                19. Perianth lobes barely exserted, entire to jagged (central tooth, if any, generally not greatly predominant); stamens 3–9; s Central Coast
2 C. angustifolia
                19' Perianth lobes well exserted, with an abrupt central tooth (if teeth > 1, central greatly predominant); stamens 9; n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
2 C. cuspidata
    9' Involucral bract margin not scarious or membranous
 
      20. Involucral awns unequal, longest generally > 2 × length of next longest in some or all involucres
 
        21. Longest involucral awn hooked, ± 2 × length of next longest — Northwestern California, Central Western California, s Sierra Nevada
C. clevelandii
        21' Longest involucral awn straight, generally 3–5 × length of next longest
 
          22. Longest involucral awn ± 5 × length of next longest — eastern Central Western California, s Sierra Nevada, n Western Transverse Ranges
C. uniaristata
          22' Longest involucral awn ± 3 × length of next longest
 
            23. Involucres (including awns) generally 5–7 mm, scattered in small clusters; Outer South Coast Ranges
C. rectispina
            23' Involucres generally 8–10 mm, clumped in large clusters; Inner South Coast Ranges
C. ventricosa
      20' Involucral awns equal or of alternating lengths, longest generally < 2 × length of next longest
 
        24. Inner perianth lobes either rather deeply fringed or notched (may require dissection of involucre to see)
 
          25. Outer perianth lobes fringed along sides; Southwestern California
C. fimbriata
            26. Fringe segments, especially lobe tip, wide, ± lobe-like; s South Coast, w Peninsular Ranges
var. fimbriata
            26' Fringe segments, including lobe tip, thin, not lobe-like; e Peninsular Ranges
var. laciniata
          25' Outer perianth lobes entire or tip notched or fringed; South Coast Ranges (C. palmeri complex)
 
            27. Perianth lobes white to pinkish
 
              28. Inner perianth lobes notched, 5–6 mm; plant yellowish green; Western Transverse Ranges (Sierra Madre Mtns, Santa Barbara Co.)
C. blakleyi
              28' Inner perianth lobes fringed, 4–5 mm; plant reddish or greenish; Outer South Coast Ranges
C. obovata
            27' Perianth lobes red to purple
 
              29. Outer perianth lobes entire, erect; on serpentine; Outer South Coast Ranges
C. palmeri
              29' Outer perianth lobes ± notched, spreading to recurved; not on serpentine; South Coast Ranges
C. biloba
                30. Outer perianth lobes deeply notched; South Coast Ranges
var. biloba
                30' Outer perianth lobes shallowly notched; Inner South Coast Ranges
var. immemora
        24' Inner perianth lobes entire, with a central tooth, or shallowly jagged (may require dissection to see)
 
          31. Perianth lobes all equal in length and width
 
            32. Plant erect; inflorescence breaking at nodes; stamens 3, attached near top of perianth tube
C. brevicornu
              33. Leaves ± linear; generally Desert
var. brevicornu
              33' Leaves oblanceolate; East of Sierra Nevada
var. spathulata
            32' Plant prostrate to decumbent; inflorescence not breaking at nodes; stamens 3–9, attached at base of perianth tube; w California Floristic Province
 
              34. Perianth lobes entire; plant thinly hairy, yellowish green when fresh; filaments fused at base; Southwestern California
C. procumbens
              34' Perianth lobes ± jagged or with a central tooth; plant densely hairy, brown or gray; filaments free; Central Coast
 
                35. Perianth lobes barely exserted, entire to jagged (central tooth, if any, generally not greatly predominant); stamens 6–9; s Central Coast
2 C. angustifolia
                35' Perianth lobes well exserted, with an abrupt central tooth (if teeth > 1, central greatly predominant); stamens 9; n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
2 C. cuspidata
          31' Perianth lobes unequal, inner generally < and narrow than outer
 
            36. Most involucral awns straight; perianth lobes sometimes ± jagged at tip
 
              37. Plant decumbent; involucre 1.5–2 mm, bracts spreading; South Coast
C. parryi var. fernandina
              37' Plant ± erect; involucral tube 3–4.5 mm, bracts erect; s North Coast
2 C. valida
            36' Involucral awns hooked; perianth lobes generally entire
 
              38. Plant grayish, canescent; involucral tube 1.5–2 mm — Transverse Ranges
C. parryi var. parryi
              38' Plant reddish or greenish, thinly hairy; involucral tube 2.5–6 mm (C. staticoides complex)
 
                39. Lower bracts ± linear, not very leaf-like, deciduous
 
                  40. Perianth well exserted; involucres loosely clustered; eastern Peninsular Ranges
C. leptotheca
                  40' Perianth moderately exserted; involucres densely clustered; s Central Western California, Southwestern California
C. staticoides
                39' Lower bracts ± oblanceolate, ± leaf-like, persistent
 
                  41. Involucral tube 3.5–5 mm, cylindric; not on serpentine
C. xanti
                    42. Involucre densely hairy; eastern San Bernardino Mountains, n San Jacinto Mountains
var. leucotheca
                    42' Involucre thinly hairy; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Inner South Coast Ranges, n border Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
var. xanti
                  41' Involucral tube generally 2–3 mm, ± bell-shaped; on serpentine or not
 
                    43. Inflorescence clusters ± open; involucral tube generally 2.5–3 mm; stamens 9; serpentine; s Outer South Coast Ranges
C. breweri
                    43' Inflorescence clusters head-like; involucral tube generally 2-2.5 mm; stamens 6; non-serpentine; n Channel Islands
C. wheeleri


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