Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Leaves alternate, generally thin, evergreen or deciduous, stomata on lower surface not in cavities; stipules thin, deciduous; inflorescence raceme- or panicle-like; fruit without horns but often with crests or ridges (Sect. Ceanothus)
    2. Leaf generally 3-ribbed from blade base (if not, basal vein-pair more prominent than others)
      3. Twigs rigid, generally thorny; leaf glaucous; branches generally gray
        4. Plant ascending, < 1.5 m; leaf < 3 cm; generally > 1000 m
C. cordulatus
        4' Plant erect, > 1.5 m; leaf 1.5–6 cm; < 1800 m
          5. Leaf 2.5–6 cm; fruit warty, not sticky; Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area; < 900 m
C. incanus
          5' Leaf 1.5–4 cm; fruit sticky, not warty; Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, n Baja California; < 1800 m
C. leucodermis
      3' Twigs flexible, generally not thorny; leaf not glaucous; branches generally not gray
        6. Leaf entire, ± deciduous
          7. Leaf generally > 2 cm; plant erect, < 4 m; inflorescence < 15 cm; flower generally white or blue; fruit sticky, valve crests minute
2 C. integerrimus
          7' Leaf generally < 2 cm; plant ascending, < 1.2 m; inflorescence < 7 cm; flower pale to deep blue; fruit not sticky, valve crests ± 0
2 C. parvifolius
        6' Leaf variously toothed, deciduous or evergreen
          8. Leaves deciduous; twigs glabrous; flower white
C. sanguineus
          8' Leaves evergreen; twigs variously hairy; flower white or pale to dark blue
            9. Flower white — twigs puberulent, becoming smooth, brown; leaf aromatic, upper surface ± shiny, glabrous
C. velutinus
              10. Leaf lower surface light green, glabrous; near coast
var. hookeri
              10' Leaf lower surface gray, canescent; inland
var. velutinus
            9' Flower generally pale to dark blue, rarely ± white
              11. Twigs round, not striate
                12. Leaf lower surface tomentose
                  13. Leaf 3–8 cm, margin serrate, few-gland-toothed or not; twigs brown, with soft, short hairs; plant < 7 m; Channel Islands
C. arboreus
                  13' Leaf 1.5–3 cm, margin gland-toothed; twigs ± rusty-tomentose; plant < 3 m; mainland
2 C. tomentosus
                12' Leaf lower surface ± hairy, especially on veins, but not tomentose
C. oliganthus
                  14. Twigs ± red-brown, hairy; leaf upper surface hairy; inflorescence generally interrupted, < 5 cm; fruit lobed, crested, hairy or not; South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; < 1300 m
var. oliganthus
                  14' Twigs generally gray-green, ± glabrous to puberulent; leaf upper surface ± glabrous; inflorescence continuous, < 4 cm; fruit barely lobed or crested, glabrous; generally coastal Transverse Ranges to North Coast Ranges; < 1000 m
var. sorediatus
              11' Twigs angled, striate
                15. Leaf margin turned under
                  16. Leaf blade ovate, lower surface gray-green, short-tomentose; inflorescence continuous, < 5 cm; fruit sticky when young, at maturity black, shiny
C. griseus
                  16' Leaf blade oblong to elliptic, lower surface pale green, densely cobwebby; inflorescence interrupted, < 15 cm; fruit not sticky when young, at maturity not shiny, not black
2 C. parryi
                15' Leaf margin not or only slightly turned under
                  17. Leaf lower surface veins not raised; fruit not glandular-sticky; Peninsular Ranges
C. cyaneus
                  17' Leaf lower surface veins very raised; fruit glandular-sticky; Northwestern California, Central Western California
C. thyrsiflorus
    2' Leaf generally 1-ribbed from blade base, basal vein-pair more prominent than others or not
      18. Leaf entire or rarely minutely toothed, ± glabrous
        19. Leaves evergreen, thick, rarely minutely toothed
          20. Flower white; fruit 5–7 mm, valves glandular-crested; plant < 3.5 m; branches gray-green to red-brown
C. palmeri
          20' Flower pale blue to ± white; fruit 4–5 mm, valves barely crested; plant < 6 m; branches olive-green
C. spinosus
        19' Leaves ± deciduous, thin, entire or rarely minutely toothed toward tip
          21. Leaf generally > 2 cm; plant erect, < 4 m; inflorescence < 15 cm, clusters generally stalked; flower generally white or blue; fruit sticky, valves minutely crested
2 C. integerrimus
          21' Leaf generally < 2 cm; plant ascending, < 1.2 m; inflorescence < 7 cm, clusters generally sessile; flower pale to deep blue; fruit not sticky, valves not crested
2 C. parvifolius
      18' Leaf generally toothed, at least lower surface generally hairy
        22. Leaf margin ± turned under
          23. Leaf upper surface glandular-papillate, margin minutely gland-toothed
            24. Plant ± prostrate; twigs angled, lower side gray-tomentose — coastal, grassy hills; Central Coast
C. hearstiorum
            24' Plant ascending to erect; twigs round, generally densely hairy
C. papillosus
              25. Plant ascending to erect, < 5 m; leaf blade 1–2 cm wide
var. papillosus
              25' Plant ± ascending, < 1.8 m; leaf blade < 1 cm wide
var. roweanus
          23' Leaf upper surface glabrous or hairy, rarely glandular-papillate, margin gland-toothed or not
            26. Twigs angled, tomentose; leaf upper surface not furrowed on veins, glabrous, margin not gland-toothed; inflorescence < 15 cm
2 C. parryi
            26' Twigs round, variously hairy; leaf upper surface furrowed on veins, puberulent, margin generally gland-toothed; inflorescence < 4 cm — stems ascending
              27. Leaf linear or narrowly oblong to elliptic, tip truncate to notched, upper surface rarely glandular-papillate; plant densely branched, < 1.5 m; inflorescence < 3 cm
C. dentatus
              27' Leaf ovate to round, tip not truncate or notched, upper surface not glandular-papillate; plant moderately branched, generally < 3.5 m; inflorescence < 4 cm
C. impressus
        22' Leaf margin not turned under
          28. Plant < 0.3 m, forming mat; leaf shape variable on single plants, upper surface blue-green
C. diversifolius
          28' Plant < 3 m, ascending to erect, not forming mat; leaves ± constant in shape on individual plants, not blue-green
            29. Plant < 3 m; twigs gray-brown to reddish, rusty-tomentose, not glandular; inflorescence panicle-like; immature fruit sticky
2 C. tomentosus
            29' Plant < 2 m; twigs gray or pale green, generally glandular, not rusty-tomentose; inflorescence ± raceme-like; immature fruit not sticky
              30. Twigs gray, glandular-hairy or not; petiole < 8 mm; leaf blade upper surface dull green; flower pale blue; plant ascending, < 1 m — c Sierra Nevada Foothills to Cascade Range Foothills, Inner North Coast Ranges
C. lemmonii
              30' Twigs pale green, glandular-hairy; petiole < 3 mm; leaf blade upper surface generally dark green; flower blue; plant ascending to erect, generally < 2 m
C. foliosus
                31. Leaf blade upper surface ± glabrous, lower glabrous to densely hairy; plant ascending, generally < 1 m; Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Peninsular Ranges
var. foliosus
                31' Leaf blade upper and lower surfaces hairy; plant ascending or erect, < 2 m; Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges
                  32. Leaf blade upper surface dull green, glandular-hairy, lower gray, densely hairy throughout; plant erect, < 2 m; San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges
var. medius
                  32' Leaf blade upper surface dark green, sparse-hairy, lower pale green, sparse-hairy on veins; plant ascending, < 0.8 m; Outer North Coast Ranges
var. vineatus
  1' Leaves generally opposite (at least some alternate in C. verrucosus, C. megacarpus), thick, evergreen, stomata on lower surface in cavities; stipules thick, at least bases persistent, generally corky; inflorescence raceme-like; fruit generally with horns, with intervening ridges or not (Sect. Cerastes)
    33. Leaves on single plant alternate or alternate and opposite
      34. Leaves alternate, blades round to deltate-obovate; fruit generally 5 mm wide — South Coast (San Diego Co.)
C. verrucosus
      34' Leaves on single plant alternate and sometimes opposite, blades elliptic to obovate; fruit 8–12 mm wide
C. megacarpus
        35. Leaves generally opposite, < 4 cm; fruit horns 0 or minute; Channel Islands
var. insularis
        35' Leaves generally alternate, < 2.6 cm; fruit horns prominent; Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, s Channel Islands
var. megacarpus
    33' Leaves opposite
      36. Flower generally white
        37. Leaf blade lower surface canescent to tomentose throughout, margin generally turned under — twigs white to rusty-tomentose
C. crassifolius
        37' Leaf blade lower surface ± sparse-hairy on veins, canescent between, margin generally not turned under
          38. Leaf upper surface (in our vars.) generally ± cupped
C. greggii
            39. Leaf < 2 cm, blade round or broad-elliptic to -obovate, upper surface yellow-green, margin sharp-toothed, generally near tip, or entire
var. perplexans
            39' Leaf < 1.5 cm, blade elliptic-ovate to oblanceolate, upper surface gray-green, margin entire to toothed
var. vestitus
          38' Leaf upper surface generally flat or ± folded lengthwise
            40. Leaf blade margin entire, upper surface dull green, flat; twigs glabrous; fruit 4–6 mm, horns slender or minute — flower sometimes pale blue to lavender
2 C. cuneatus var. cuneatus
            40' Leaf blade margin generally toothed, upper surface dark- or yellow-green, folded or flat; twigs puberulent; fruit 6–9 mm, horns not slender, not minute
              41. Leaf blade upper surface dark-green, generally flat; twigs rusty-puberulent; fruit 6–9 mm, horns rough; San Francisco Bay Area
C. ferrisiae
              41' Leaf blade upper surface yellow-green, ± folded lengthwise; twigs gray-brown, puberulent; fruit ± 6 mm, horns wrinkled; Inner North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges
C. jepsonii var. albiflorus
      36' Flower blue, lavender, or pale or white with blue tinge
        42. Stem prostrate, rooting at nodes, or ascending
          43. Leaf blade upper surface dull
            44. Stems ± ascending or not; leaf not ± erect, < 2 cm, leaf blade upper surface generally puberulent; flower blue; fruit horns slender, near top
C. fresnensis
            44' Stems prostrate; leaf ± erect, ± 1 cm, blade upper surface ± glabrous; flower white with blue tinge; fruit horns not slender, on side, or 0
C. roderickii
          43' Leaf blade upper surface generally shiny
            45. Leaf 2–5 cm — leaf margin dentate; flower deep blue to violet; fruit 3.5–4.5 mm, horns minute, ridges 0
C. gloriosus var. gloriosus
            45' Leaf generally < 2.5 cm
              46. Leaf ± as long as wide, margin entire or coarse-toothed
                47. Fruit 4–5 mm, horns minute, not wrinkled, ridges 0; leaf < 1.5 cm; s San Francisco Bay Area, Central Coast (near Hazard Canyon, San Luis Obispo Co.)
2 C. cuneatus var. rigidus
                47' Fruit 7–9 mm, horns wrinkled, not minute, ridges present; leaf generally < 2 cm; s High Sierra Nevada (Kern Plateau)
2 C. pinetorum
              46' Leaf longer than wide, margin generally toothed
                48. Leaf blade < 5 mm wide; twigs puberulent
C. pumilus
                48' Leaf blade > 5 mm wide; twigs puberulent or glabrous
                  49. Leaf blade lower surface white-woolly, margin turned under; twigs glabrous — Central Coast (San Luis Obispo Co.)
C. maritimus
                  49' Leaf blade lower surface not white-woolly but hairy on veins, canescent between, margin not turned under; twigs puberulent
                    50. Leaf < 2 cm, petiole < 1 mm; fruit generally 5 mm, horns slender, not wrinkled, ridges minute — Outer North Coast Ranges (Sonoma Co.)
C. confusus
                    50' Leaf < 3.2 cm, petiole < 3 mm; fruit 5–9 mm, horns wrinkled, not slender, ridges prominent
C. prostratus
        42' Stem ± prostrate to erect, not rooting at nodes
          51. Leaf often holly-like, marginal teeth spine-like, at least near tip
            52. Fruit ± 6 mm, horns thick, wrinkled, ridges prominent — flower blue to violet; leaf < 3 cm, generally ± cupped; plant ± ascending, < 6 dm
C. jepsonii var. jepsonii
            52' Fruit generally 3–5 mm, horns slender, not wrinkled, ridges 0 or minute
              53. Leaf < 1.5 cm, flat; plant erect — fruit 5 mm; flower blue to lavender
C. sonomensis
              53' Leaf 1.5–2.5 cm, flat or not; plant ascending to erect
                54. Plant ascending, weakly arched; leaf blade ± flat, margin not wavy, ± turned under, tip ± truncate
C. divergens
                54' Plant ± erect, rigid; leaf blade ± cupped, margin wavy, not turned under, tip obtuse
C. purpureus
          51' Leaf generally not holly-like, margin generally dentate, teeth generally not spine-like
            55. Fruit 7–9 mm, horns prominent, wrinkled, ridges present — plant ± prostrate to erect; leaf margins ± turned under or not
2 C. pinetorum
            55' Fruit 3–6 mm, horns slender or minute, not wrinkled, ridges 0
              56. Leaf margin entire or toothed near tip, blade narrowly oblanceolate to round-obovate
                57. Leaves 2–7 mm, lower surface glabrous; flowers pale blue, sometimes pink — n Peninsular Ranges (Riverside Co.)
C. ophiochilus
                57' Leaves 5–50 mm, lower surface minutely canescent to hairy on veins; flowers generally white, sometimes bluish
                  58. Branches thick, stiff, straight; blade ± cupped, obovate to round-obovate, margin toothed toward tip; flower light to dark blue — s San Francisco Bay Area, Central Coast (near Hazard Canyon, San Luis Obispo Co.)
2 C. cuneatus var. rigidus
                  58' Branches slender, flexible, arched; blade ± flat, narrowly oblanceolate to round-obovate, margin generally entire; flower lavender, pale blue, or white
                    59. Leaves closely clustered, blades narrowly oblanceolate
C. cuneatus var. fascicularis
                    59' Leaves not closely clustered, blades generally round-obovate
2 C. cuneatus var. cuneatus
              56' Leaf margin dentate, blade round to widely elliptic or oblong
                60. Plant generally ± prostrate, < 5 dm — twigs slender; leaf 1–2 cm; San Francisco Bay Area (Point Reyes, Marin Co.)
C. gloriosus var. porrectus
                60' Plant generally erect, sometimes ascending, < 2 m
                  61. Leaf 15–40 mm; stem flexible, arched; n San Francisco Bay Area, Outer North Coast Ranges
C. gloriosus var. exaltatus
                  61' Leaf 6–18 mm; stem stiff, straight; San Francisco Bay Area (Bolinas Ridge, sw Marin Co.)
C. masonii

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