Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Inflorescence not very reddish (generally green, white, yellow, or purplish); flower ± short (generally bee-pollinated); lower lip 3-pouched, teeth generally ± erect, white or green to lavender, upper lip << 3 × lower (subg. Colacus)
    2. Perennial
      3. Calyx sinuses much deeper in front and back than on sides (sect. Pallescentes)
        4. Herbage glandular; corolla 17–22 mm, lower lip 5–7 mm, teeth yellow-green, ± triangular; stem generally simple; bract lobes ± acute
C. lemmonii
        4' Herbage hairy, nonglandular; corolla 13–16 mm, lower lip 2 mm, teeth dark green, incurved; stem much-branched; bract lobes truncate or rounded
C. praeterita
      3' Calyx sinuses subequal (sect. Pilosae)
        5. Plant ± white-woolly
          6. Plant 8–30 cm; leaves 20–60 mm; hairs simple; Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau
C. arachnoidea
          6' Plant 8–15 cm; leaves 5–20 mm; hairs branched; Klamath Ranges
C. schizotricha
        5' Plant puberulent to coarsely hairy
          7. Plant ashy-puberulent; bract tips generally dusty red or purplish; hairs dense, partitioned, much-branched; seed coat walls irregularly netted — seed coat tight-fitting; San Bernardino Mountains
C. cinerea
          7' Plant not ashy-puberulent; bract tips generally yellow-green; hairs ± stiff, glandular and not, ± unbranched; seed coat walls with ladder-like thickenings
            8. Bract lobes acuminate, green-margined; seed coat loose-fitting
C. nana
            8' Bract lobes generally rounded (acute), white-margined; seed coat tight-fitting
C. pilosa
    2' Annual (sect. Oncorhynchus)
      9. Bracts green throughout
        10. Leaves and bracts entire
C. campestris
          11. Leaves and bracts linear, thin, flexible; bracts < or = flowers; corolla light to bright yellow; lower anther sac 1/4–1/3 upper
subsp. campestris
          11' Leaves and bracts lanceolate, thick, ± brittle; bracts > flowers; corolla deep yellow to orange; lower anther sac ± 1/2 upper
subsp. succulenta
        10' Leaves entire or lobed; bracts lobed
          12. Corolla beak densely white-hairy — San Bernardino Mountains, n&c Peninsular Ranges
C. lasiorhyncha
          12' Corolla beak puberulent
            13. Lower corolla lip pouches 2–4 mm wide, ± 2 mm deep; stigma well included
C. tenuis
            13' Lower corolla lip pouches 4–10 mm wide, 3–6 mm deep; stigma generally ± exserted
              14. Corolla 13–22 mm, pouches 4–8 mm wide; Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
C. lacera
              14' Corolla generally 20–28 mm, pouches 8–10 mm wide; North Coast Ranges
C. rubicundula
                15. Corolla yellow
subsp. lithospermoides
                15' Corolla white, turning pinkish
subsp. rubicundula
      9' Bracts and calyx lobes tipped purplish, yellowish, or whitish
        16. Corolla beak hooked, densely shaggy-hairy; filaments puberulent
C. exserta
          17. Upper bracts generally 5–7 mm wide, lobes < 2 mm, tipped pale lavender; inflorescence appearing alternately light- and dark-banded; North Coast, n&c Central Coast
subsp. latifolia
          17' Upper bracts < 5 mm wide, lobes > 2 mm; inflorescence not banded
            18. Corolla white to yellow or rose to purple-red; widespread
subsp. exserta
            18' Corolla bright rose-red except orange-tipped lower lip; w Mojave Desert
subsp. venusta
        16' Corolla beak straight, puberulent; filaments glabrous
          19. Inflorescence 10–20 mm wide; corolla linear, pouches ± 2 mm wide; stigma well including
            20. Bract lobes 3, tipped white or pale yellow; seed < 1 mm, coat shallowly netted
C. attenuata
            20' Bract lobes 3–5, tipped pink or purplish red; seed 1–1.5 mm, coat ± deeply netted
C. brevistyla
          19' Inflorescence 20–40 mm wide; corolla wider distally, pouches generally 3–5 mm wide; stigma generally ± exserted
            21. Stem ± stiffly spreading-hairy and glandular; inflorescence pale — n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
C. lineariloba
            21' Stem subglabrous, not glandular; inflorescence bright (yellow to purplish red)
              22. Branches generally many; leaf oblong, > 3 mm wide; seed coat tight-fitting; ± coastal
C. ambigua
                23. Bracts tipped yellow
subsp. ambigua
                23' Bracts tipped rose or purplish red
                  24. Plant ± fleshy, branches 0 or few from mid-stem; n North Coast, salt marshes
subsp. humboldtiensis
                  24' Plant not fleshy, much-branched from base; c Central Coast, bluffs, grasslands
subsp. insalutata
              22' Branches 0 or few from mid-stem; leaf linear-lanceolate, < 3 mm wide; seed coat loose-fitting; generally inland
C. densiflora
                25. Calyx 5–10 mm; lower corolla lip widened abruptly, pouches as deep as long
subsp. gracilis
                25' Calyx 8–20 mm; lower corolla lip widened gradually, pouches longer than deep
                  26. Inflorescence rose-purple
subsp. densiflora
                  26' Inflorescence white to pale yellow
subsp. obispoensis
  1' Inflorescence ± red (yellow-orange); flower long (generally hummingbird-pollinated); lower lip of small, incurved, generally dark green (red) teeth, upper lip > 3 × lower (subg. Castilleja)
    27. Annual; stem simple; wet places — leaves and bracts entire, ± narrowly lanceolate
C. minor
      28. Corolla 15–20(30) mm; plant shaggy-hairy (most hairs glandular)
subsp. minor
      28' Corolla 25–35 mm; plant puberulent (many hairs nonglandular)
subsp. spiralis
    27' Perennial; stems generally clustered; generally drier places (except C. miniata)
      29. Plant ± densely white-woolly or ash-gray with branched hairs
        30. Herbage ± green, calyces white-woolly; calyx sinuses deeper on sides than in back and front
C. plagiotoma
        30' Whole plant densely white-woolly or ash-gray; calyx sinuses deeper in back and front than on sides
          31. Leaves oblong to obovate, entire, tip rounded; inflorescence ± yellow; bracts entire or 3-toothed — n Channel Islands
C. mollis
          31' Leaves linear to lanceolate, upper sometimes 3-lobed, tip acute to obtuse; inflorescence generally red; bracts generally 3–7-lobed
            32. Plant white-felty with long, interwined, slightly branched hairs; leaves entire — n Channel Islands
C. lanata subsp. hololeuca
            32' Plant white-woolly or ash-gray with shorter, much-branched or stellate hairs; upper leaves sometimes 3-lobed
              33. Inflorescence pale yellow-green; plant ash-gray; hairs matted, short, stellate; bracts 5–7-lobed — s Channel Islands
C. grisea
              33' Inflorescence bright red to bright yellow; plant white-woolly or ash-gray; hairs much-branched; bracts generally entire (0–5-lobed)
                34. Plant white-woolly; calyx ± undivided on sides
C. foliolosa
                34' Plant ash-gray; calyx divided ± 1/4 on sides
2 C. pruinosa
      29' Plant generally not white-woolly or ash-gray from branched hairs
        35. Calyx divided 2/3 in front, < 1/3 in back, lobes generally curved upward; corolla (including lower lip) generally curved out through front calyx sinus
          36. Plant generally glabrous; leaves linear, rolled upward; bracts narrowly 3-lobed, < calyx; corolla beak sparsely puberulent; Cascade Range, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
C. linariifolia
          36' Plant puberulent; leaves lanceolate, not rolled; bracts generally entire, > calyx; corolla beak ± densely shaggy-puberulent; California Floristic Province
C. subinclusa
            37. Corolla yellow-orange; calyx lobes clearly curved upward, sides ± entire to divided < 1/5
subsp. franciscana
            37' Corolla reddish; calyx lobes barely curved upward, sides divided at least 1/5
subsp. subinclusa
        35' Calyx divided ± 1/3–1/2 in front and back, lobes not curved upward; corolla generally not curved out through front calyx sinus (lower lip including)
          38. Hairs branched and dense (or puberulent)
2 C. pruinosa
          38' Hairs generally unbranched (or ± 0), puberulent to bristly (especially C. affinis may have some branched hairs)
            39. Plant glandular-puberulent to -sticky below inflorescence
              40. Calyx divided slightly > 1/2 in front; corolla beak 1/2 tube; stigma clearly 2-lobed
C. parviflora
              40' Calyx generally divided 1/3–1/2 in front; corolla beak 1–2 × tube; stigma entire or barely notched
                41. Branches generally crowded below spike; leaves generally crowded; seed coat deeply netted; coastal
C. wightii
                41' Branches few below spike; leaves generally ± well spaced; seed coat shallowly netted; inland
                  42. Plant glandular but not sticky; leaves entire or shallowly lobed, not wavy; calyx lobes obtuse to rounded — nw Klamath Ranges
C. hispida subsp. brevilobata
                  42' Plant very glandular-sticky; leaves entire to deeply lobed, margin wavy; calyx lobes generally acute
C. applegatei
                    43. Stem 10–25 cm; leaf lobes 0–3; calyx 13–15 mm, divided ± 1/4 on sides; subalpine — High Sierra Nevada
subsp. pallida
                    43' Stem 30–80 cm; most leaves entire; calyx 12–25 mm, generally divided < 1/5 on sides; generally below subalpine
                      44. Calyx lobes obtuse to rounded
subsp. martinii
                      44' Calyx lobes acute
                        45. Calyx 12–18 mm; c&s High Sierra Nevada
subsp. disticha
                        45' Calyx 16–25 mm; n California
subsp. pinetorum
            39' Plant generally not glandular below spike (except barely in some C. affinis or C. latifolia)
              46. Hairs generally bristly or shaggy; leaves ± fleshy, oblong to rounded, generally entire, tips truncate-rounded; bracts 0–3-lobed
                47. Corolla 20–30 mm, beak 10–15 mm; n&c Central Coast
C. latifolia
                47' Corolla 30–40 mm, beak 15–25 mm; c North Coast
C. mendocinensis
              46' Hairs generally puberulent or 0 (bristly); leaves generally not fleshy, linear to lanceolate, entire or lobed, tips acute to obtuse; bracts entire to deeply lobed
                48. Leaves generally 3–5-lobed; calyx divided 1/4–1/3 in back and front; generally sagebrush or desert scrub
C. angustifolia
                48' Leaves generally 0–3(5)-lobed; calyx divided ± 1/2 in back and front; generally California Floristic Province
                  49. Plant generally ± bristly-puberulent; leaves sometimes 5-lobed; dry places most of California Floristic Province
C. affinis
                    50. Inflorescence generally bright red(-orange) (rarely yellow), 30–50 mm wide; variable, common
subsp. affinis
                    50' Inflorescence generally yellow (rarely pink or orangish), 15–25 mm wide; relatively uniform, rare — s Inner North Coast Ranges, nw San Francisco Bay Area, on serpentine
subsp. neglecta
                  49' Plant glabrous to sparsely puberulent; leaves entire; moist or dry places
                    51. Bract and calyx lobes obtuse or rounded; seed coat deeply netted, tight-fitting; dry coastal bluffs, North Coast
C. affinis subsp. litoralis
                    51' Bract and calyx lobes acute; seed coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting; moist places, North Coast and elsewhere
                      52. Inflorescence gray-puberulent; s North Coast (Point Reyes), probably alien, presumed extinct
C. chrymactis
                      52' Inflorescence (sub)glabrous; widespread
C. miniata
                        53. Stem slender; inflorescence pinkish to yellow-orange; serpentine bogs, rare; nw Klamath Ranges
subsp. elata
                        53' Stem stout; inflorescence generally bright red to orange-red; common, widespread
subsp. miniata

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