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The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

    THIS PAGE IS NO LONGER UPDATED
    AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to CALOCHORTUS

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Flower nodding; perianth closed, oblong to spheric (sect. Calochortus in part)
 
    2. Petals white, pink, or rose
 
      3. Sepals appressed to petals; lower nectary membranes 1/3–2/3 petal width; petals generally white to pink; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, n Channel Islands
C. albus
      3' Sepals spreading; lower nectary membranes ± = petal width; petals rose; c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills
C. amoenus
    2' Petals yellow
 
      4. Stem generally simple above base; petals > sepals, hairy; plant generally > 30 cm; plant very glaucous
C. raichei
      4' Stem generally branched above base; petals generally < or = sepals, glabrous to sparsely hairy; plant generally < 30 cm; plant not very glaucous
 
        5. Plant slightly glaucous; petals deep yellow; Outer North Coast Ranges, nw San Francisco Bay Area
C. amabilis
        5' Plant green; petals light yellow; ne San Francisco Bay Area
C. pulchellus
  1' Flower erect to spreading; perianth open, bell-shaped
 
    6. Fruit nodding; petal not much spotted or striped (if patterned, above-ground stem < 10 cm) (sect. Calochortus in part)
 
      7. Petals generally > 30 mm, pink to purplish; ne Klamath Ranges
C. persistens
      7' Petals generally < 25 mm, color various; widespread (not s California)
 
        8. Petal ± (sub)glabrous inside
 
          9. Cauline leaves 0; Sierra Nevada
C. minimus
          9' Cauline leaves present; Northwestern California, Central Western California
 
            10. Stem 8–25 cm, branched, bulblets 0
C. umbellatus
            10' Stem generally < 5 cm, generally simple, bulblets present
C. uniflorus
        8' Petal ± conspicuously hairy inside
 
          11. Petal deep yellow; Cascade Range Foothills,n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
C. monophyllus
          11' Petal white, purple, or blue
 
            12. Petal lanceolate to obovate, ± ciliate on sides but not around tip; Northwestern California, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, s Sierra Nevada
 
              13. Petal obovate; stem generally branched; Northwestern California, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California
C. tolmiei
              13' Petal lanceolate; stem simple; s Sierra Nevada
C. westonii
            12' Petal obovate, conspicuously ciliate around entire margin; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
 
              14. Petal bluish (purple crescent 0), ± smooth inside; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
C. coeruleus
              14' Petal greenish white, base dark purplish, minutely bumpy inside; e Klamath Ranges
C. elegans
    6' Fruit erect; petal obviously spotted or striped (except C. nudus)
 
      15. Basal leaf ± persistent at flowering (sect. Calochortus in part)
 
        16. Petal flecked yellow-green, streaked purple-brown; nw San Francisco Bay Area
C. tiburonensis
        16' Petal pink to purple; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau
 
          17. Petal with purple crescent above nectary
C. longebarbatus var. longebarbatus
          17' Petal crescent 0 inside
 
            18. Petal 30–40 mm with dark purple crescent outside; nectary deep; dry places; < 1100 m
C. greenei
            18' Petal 14–16 mm, crescent 0 outside; nectary ± shallow; moist places; > 1200 m
C. nudus
      15' Basal leaf ± withered by flower (except C. excavatus)
 
        19. Nectary surface ± glabrous, ± hidden by dense bordering hairs; bulb coat fibrous — s Central Western California, Southwestern California (sect. Cyclobothra)
 
          20. Petal ± pink, generally toothed, not ciliate
C. plummerae
          20' Petal yellow to red-brown, generally ± ciliate
 
            21. Petal tip dark-hair-tufted
C. obispoensis
            21' Petal tip fringed, not hair-tufted
C. weedii
              22. Petal deep yellow
var. weedii
              22' Petal cream to purplish or red-brown
 
                23. Petal purplish, rounded; anther rounded; c South Coast, n Peninsular Ranges
var. intermedius
                23' Petal sometimes cream or red-brown, squarish; anther abruptly pointed; Outer South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges
var. vestus
        19' Nectary surface hairy; bulb coat membranous (sect. Mariposa)
 
          24. Nectary ± round, clearly depressed, encircled by fringed membrane
 
            25. Petal generally orange to red (yellow); stem sometimes twisted
C. kennedyi
              26. Petal orange (eastern Mojave Desert) to red (n Transverse Ranges, w Mojave Desert)
var. kennedyi
              26' Petal ± yellow; n&eastern Desert Mountains
var. munzii
            25' Petal yellow or white generally tinged lilac; stem sometimes zigzag but not twisted
 
              27. Petal white, tinged lilac, or lavender, green-striped outside; sepals sometimes dark-spotted
 
                28. Petal base marked dark purple; bracts generally 3–8 cm; anthers red-brown — sw East of Sierra Nevada
C. excavatus
                28' Petal white or tinged lilac; bracts generally 2–5 cm; anthers yellow, maroon, blue, purple, or red
 
                  29. Sepal base not spotted; petals ± widely wedge-shaped
C. invenustus
                  29' Sepal base dark-spotted; petals narrowly obovate — East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
 
                    30. Petal with red or purple arch above yellow-encircled nectary; East of Sierra Nevada
C. bruneaunis
                    30' Petal without dark arch above red- or purple-encircled nectary; n Desert Mountains
C. panamintensis
              27' Petal yellow to gold, not green-striped outside; sepal base generally dark-spotted
 
                31. Perianth bell-shaped; stem straight; nectary densely slender-hairy, encircled by slender hairs; Southwestern California
C. concolor
                31' Perianth cup-shaped; stem sometimes zigzag; nectary densely knobby-hairy, encircled by club-shaped hairs; Sierra Nevada, Central Western California
C. clavatus
                  32. Petal < sepal; nectary very deep; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
var. avius
                  32' Petal > sepal; nectary shallow to moderately deep; w Great Central Valley, Central Western California, n Southwestern California
 
                    33. Stem generally < 30 cm, slender, straight
 
                      34. Petal 30–40 mm, sparsely hairy; leaves not recurved; San Gabriel Mountains
var. gracilis
                      34' Petal 40–50 mm, hairy; leaves strongly recurved; south-central Central Coast
C. clavatus var. recurvifolius
                    33' Stem generally 50–100 cm, coarse, zigzag
 
                      35. Petal deep yellow, hairs very knobby; anther deep purple; South Coast Ranges
C. clavatus var. clavatus
                      35' Petal light yellow, hairs not very knobby; anther yellow to medium purple; especially w San Joaquin Valley
C. clavatus var. pallidus
          24' Nectary not simultaneously round, depressed, and surrounded by fringed membrane (but sometimes 1 of these)
 
            36. Stem base not bulblet-bearing (except some C. splendens)
 
              37. Petal purple-veined, not spotted
C. striatus
              37' Petal spotted, not obviously veined or striped
 
                38. Stem twining or sprawling; perianth yellow-banded
C. flexuosus
                38' Stem ± erect; perianth not yellow-banded
 
                  39. Petal white, generally flushed pink, red-spotted above nectary, yellow-hairy near nectary; Peninsular Ranges
C. dunnii
                  39' Petal lavender to deep purple, base generally purple-spotted, sparsely (not yellow) hairy; Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, Southwestern California
C. splendens
            36' Stem base generally bulblet-bearing (except C. palmeri var. munzii)
 
              40. Petal bright or deep yellow
 
                41. Nectary crescent-shaped to oblong
C. luteus
                41' Nectary generally ± square (ovate)
2 C. venustus
              40' Petal white to pink or purple (sometimes yellowish)
 
                42. Nectary generally ± ovate or oblong (sometimes ± round)
 
                  43. Anthers sagittate; Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
C. leichtlinii
                  43' Anthers not sagittate; se Klamath Ranges, Central Western California, Southwestern California
 
                    44. Fruit narrowly oblong, not angled
C. catalinae
                    44' Fruit linear, angled
 
                      45. Perianth generally 40–50 mm; nectary hairs slender, simple; ne Klamath Ranges
C. monanthus
                      45' Perianth generally 20–30 mm; nectary hairs thick, ± branched, knobby; s California Floristic Province
C. palmeri
                        46. Nectary glabrous or purple-hairy; bulblets 0; bracts alternate; San Jacinto Mountains
var. munzii
                        46' Nectary yellow-hairy; bulblets present; bracts opposite; Tehachapi Mountain Area, s Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains
var. palmeri
                42' Nectary 1–2 crescents or chevrons, ± triangular, or ± square
 
                  47. Nectary ± triangular-sagittate; sepals generally > petals
C. macrocarpus
                  47' Nectary 1–2 crescents or chevrons, or ± square; sepals < or = petals
 
                    48. Nectary ± square; petal sometimes with 2nd, distal, paler spot
 
                      49. Nectary in red spot; 2nd petal spot 0; seed 5–6 mm, 3 mm wide
C. simulans
                      49' Nectary not in red spot; 2nd petal spot generally present; seed 4–5 mm, 1–2 mm wide
2 C. venustus
                    48' Nectary 1–2 crescents or chevrons; petal spot 1, generally in yellow zone
 
                      50. Nectary 2 crescents or chevrons
C. vestae
                      50' Nectary 1 crescent or chevron
 
                        51. Fruit lanceolate; Central Western California
C. argillosus
                        51' Fruit linear; widespread
C. superbus


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