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The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


Key to BROMUS

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Spikelet strongly compressed, glumes and lemmas clearly keeled
 
    2. Lemma awn 0–3 mm; lower glume generally 5–7-veined
B. catharticus
    2' Lemma awn 3–15 mm; lower glume 3–7-veined
 
      3. Annual; lemma body ± = upper glume, back glabrous to scabrous, short-hairy between outer 1–2 veins and margin
B. arizonicus
      3' Perennial; lemma body generally > upper glume, back evenly scabrous to short-hairy
 
        4. Fruit compressed; lemma wing below middle and between outer vein and margin ± 1 mm wide; disturbed places
B. stamineus
        4' Fruit cylindric; lemma wing generally < 0.5 mm wide; ± undisturbed places
B. carinatus
          5. Spikelets not crowded or overlapping; branches and stalks generally > spikelets; generally inland
var. carinatus
          5' Spikelets crowded, overlapping; branches and stalks generally < spikelets; coastal
var. maritimus
  1' Spikelet subcylindric to compressed, lemmas (sometimes glumes) slightly compressed or with back rounded
 
    6. Lemma awns generally 15–55 mm, teeth generally 3–7 mm (except B. sterilis); lower glume generally 1-veined (except B. alopecuros)
 
      7. Lemma awn bent, generally twisted 1+ ×
 
        8. Inflorescence dense; spikelets > lower branches or stalks; lemma teeth acute to rounded, not thread-like
2 B. alopecuros
        8' Inflorescence ± open; spikelets generally < or = lower branches or stalks; lemma teeth thread-like
B. trinii
      7' Lemma awn generally straight, not bent, not twisted
 
        9. Inflorescence dense; spikelets all ascending to erect, > lower branches or stalks
2 B. madritensis
          10. Stem, leaf sheath generally glabrous; inflorescence narrowly ovoid to oblong; most spikelet stalks visible
subsp. madritensis
          10' Stem, leaf sheath generally puberulent; inflorescence ovoid; most spikelet stalks obscure
subsp. rubens
        9' Inflorescence generally open; lower spikelets (or branches) spreading to drooping, spikelets generally < lower branches or stalks
 
          11. Lemma body 18–30 mm, teeth 3–7 mm; awn 30–55 mm
B. diandrus
          11' Lemma body 9–15 mm, teeth 0–3 mm; awn 8–30 mm
 
            12. Lemma awn 18–30 mm; 1° inflorescence branches generally with 1(2) spikelets
B. sterilis
            12' Lemma awn 8–18 mm; 1° inflorescence branches generally with 2+ spikelets
2 B. tectorum
    6' Lemma awns generally 0–15 mm, teeth generally 0–3 mm; lower glume 1–3(5)-veined
 
      13. Lemma awn bent to curved, teeth 3–4.5 mm
2 B. alopecuros
      13' Lemma awn straight, generally erect, teeth 0–3(4) mm
 
        14. Lemma awns generally < 3 mm
 
          15. Glumes obtuse; lemma 2–3 mm wide (midvein to margin), body 6–9.5 mm; annual
B. briziformis
          15' Glumes acute to long-tapered; lemma 1–2 mm wide (midvein to margin), body 7–14 mm; perennial herb
 
            16. Inflorescence generally nodding, lower branches drooping; upper glume 5–7-veined; glumes, lemmas puberulent
3 B. anomalus
            16' Inflorescence erect, branches ascending to erect; upper glume 3-veined; glumes, lemmas generally glabrous
 
              17. Plants from rhizomes; upper glume 6–10 mm, 1–2 mm > lower glume; lemma body 8–12 mm, awn 0–2.5 mm
B. inermis subsp. inermis
              17' Rhizomes 0; upper glume10–13 mm, 2–3 mm > lower glume; lemma body 10–14 mm, awn 2–5 mm
2 B. suksdorfii
        14' Lemma awns generally 3–25 mm
 
          18. Annual; lemma teeth generally 0.5–4 mm, acute
 
            19. Lower glume 1-veined, upper glume 3-veined
 
              20. Inflorescence dense; spikelets all ascending to erect, stalks generally < 10 mm
2 B. madritensis (see 10. for subspp.)
              20' Inflorescence generally open, lower branches or spikelets spreading to nodding, stalks generally > 10 mm
2 B. tectorum
            19' Lower glume 3–5-veined, upper glume 5–7-veined
 
              21. Inflorescence ± dense; spikelets all ascending to erect, stalks generally 0–5 mm
B. hordeaceus
              21' Inflorescence open; lower spikelets spreading to nodding, some stalks or branches > 10 mm
 
                22. Lemma body becoming hard, margins below middle inrolled, enclosing fruit; spikelet axis exposed in fruit
B. secalinus
                22' Lemma body ± membranous, margins touching, not inrolled, not enclosing fruit; spikelet axis concealed in fruit
 
                  23. Spikelet generally soft-hairy; lower glume 7–10 mm, upper glume 8–12 mm
B. arenarius
                  23' Spikelet generally glabrous; lower glume 4.5–7 mm, upper glume 5–8 mm
B. japonicus
          18' Perennial; lemma tip generally rounded to minutely lobed
 
            24. Inflorescence narrow, ± cylindric, interrupted, branches ascending to erect, generally < spikelets — lower glume 1-veined, glabrous
2 B. suksdorfii
            24' Inflorescence pyramidal, lower branches nodding to spreading, generally > spikelets
 
              25. Lemma unevenly hairy, back generally glabrous above middle, puberulent below middle or between outer veins and margin
 
                26. Lower glume 1(3)-veined, upper glume 3-veined; anthers generally 1–3 mm; ligule generally < 1.5 mm
B. ciliatus
                26' Lower glume 3-veined, upper glume 5–7-veined; anthers generally 3–4(5) mm; ligule generally 2–4 mm
2 B. laevipes
              25' Lemma glabrous or evenly hairy throughout
 
                27. Lower glume 1-veined
 
                  28. Upper glume 10–15 mm; cauline leaf ligule generally 3–6 mm
B. vulgaris
                  28' Upper glume 6–11 mm; cauline leaf ligule generally 1–3(4) mm
 
                    29. Lemma hairs generally > glume hairs, awn 1–3.5 mm; cauline leaf blades generally inrolled; sheath glabrous
3 B. anomalus
                    29' Lemma glabrous or hairs = glume hairs, awn 4–8 mm; cauline leaf blades generally flat; sheath glabrous to soft-hairy
2 B. orcuttianus
                27' Lower glume 3-veined
 
                  30. Lemma hairs generally > glume hairs, awn 1–3.5 mm; cauline leaf blade generally inrolled
3 B. anomalus
                  30' Lemma and glume hairs generally ± equal, awn 3–8 mm; cauline leaf blade generally flat
 
                    31. Upper glume generally 5-veined
2 B. laevipes
                    31' Upper glume generally 3-veined
 
                      32. Inflorescence 14–21 cm, lower branches nodding to spreading
B. grandis
                      32' Inflorescence 6–17 cm, lower branches spreading to ascending
2 B. orcuttianus


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