Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual

Key to ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Key to Groups

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Fruit ± cylindric, 3–4 mm, 2–3 mm wide; skin ribbed vertically; pulp 0 or not mealy; stones 2–5; blade generally 0.5–2.5 cm; petiole 1–3 mm (subg. Micrococcus)
Group 1
  1' Fruit spheric or ovoid, 4–15 mm wide; skin smooth, not ribbed; pulp generally mealy; stones generally 8–10, separable or strongly fused into 1 unit; blade generally 2–4+ cm; petiole generally > 3 mm (subg. Arctostaphylos)
    2. Most or all inflorescence bracts scale-like, folded, back keeled, deltate to awl-like, all except lowermost bract 2–5 mm; sepals ± appressed (sect. Arctostaphylos)
Group 2
    2' Bracts leaf-like, lanceolate to ovate, generally 5–15 mm, generally green, sometimes pink; sepals ± reflexed in fruit (sects. Foliobracteata, Pictobracteata)
Group 3

Key to ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Group 1 (subg. Micrococcus)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Sepals 4; corolla lobes 4; fruit 2–4-ribbed; blade surfaces not alike, upper surface ± convex, darker than lower, glabrous, margin ± rolled; lower surface sparsely fine-bristly; North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area
    2. Blade elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 5–12 mm, 3–7 mm wide; inflorescence axis hairs not glandular; pedicel straight; corolla 4–5 mm, narrow
A. mendocinoensis
    2' Blade ± round to round-ovate, 10–22 mm, 8–18 mm wide; inflorescence axis hairs ± gland-tipped; pedicel recurved in fruit; corolla 5–6 mm, spheric
A. nummularia
  1' Sepals 5; corolla lobes 5; fruit 5-ribbed; blade surfaces alike, bright green or glaucous, flat; n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
    3. Inflorescence bracts 1–2 mm, scale-like, folded, keeled, red; pedicel 1–3 mm, ± recurved in fruit; blade bright green, shiny; twigs, inflorescence axis fine-glandular-bristly; bark red, smooth, glaucous
A. myrtifolia
    3' Inflorescence bracts 3–9 mm, leaf-like, flat, generally gray; pedicel 5–7 mm, straight; blade glaucous, dull; twigs, inflorescence axis short-hairy, not glandular; bark gray, rough
A. nissenana

Key to ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Group 2(sect. Arctostaphylos)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Inflorescence ± a raceme, sometimes with 1–2 (2–5 in A. edmundsii) short (5–15 mm) branches at base; blades mostly 1–2 cm; plants generally low, stems decumbent (erect in A. pungens, A. rudis)
    2. Leaf surfaces not alike, upper surface darker than lower, slightly convex, margin cupped or ± rolled; leaves spreading to ± ascending
      3. Inflorescence branches 2–5; leaf blade ± round to round-ovate, base truncate to slightly lobed; filament base hairy
A. edmundsii
      3' Inflorescence raceme, sometimes with 1 short branch; leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate, base ± wedge-shaped; filament base ± glabrous
        4. Pedicel, ovary ± white-hairy; lower leaf blade surface gray-tomentose; fruit dull reddish brown
A. pumila
        4' Pedicel, ovary ± glabrous; lower leaf blade surface ± glabrous, ± shiny, not gray-tomentose; fruit bright red
A. uva-ursi
    2' Leaf surfaces alike, flat, margin flat; leaves ascending to erect
      5. Inflorescence axis stout, club-like near tip; flowers, bracts crowded distally; inflorescence ± umbel-like; pedicel 5–10 mm; fruit depressed-spheric; plant 1–3 m, stems erect
A. pungens
      5' Inflorescence axis slender, not club-like; flowers, bracts evenly spaced; inflorescence not umbel-like; pedicel 2–6 mm; fruit generally spheric (except A. rudis) plant generally < 1 m, stems spreading to decumbent (erect, 1–2 m in A. rudis)
        6. Bark gray, rough, persistent; basal burl present; plants 1–2 m, stems erect; fruit 8–14 mm wide, depressed-spheric
A. rudis
        6' Bark red, smooth; basal burl 0; plants < 1 m, mat- to mound-like; stems generally prostrate to decumbent; fruit 3–8 mm wide, spheric to slightly depressed
          7. Lower 1–2 inflorescence bracts ± leaf-like, lanceolate-linear, 5–10 mm; leaf ± obovate; leaf tip obtuse to rounded; North Coast Ranges, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada (conifer forest)
            8. Leaf glaucous, dull, midvein sparsely fine-glandular; pedicel, ovary finely glandular-bristly; stones fused into a ribbed, pitted unit
A. klamathensis
            8' Leaf bright green, shiny, glabrous; pedicel, ovary glabrous; stones separable or sticking together in groups
A. nevadensis
          7' Lower inflorescence bracts scale-like, ± awl-like, 2–5 mm; leaf ± elliptic or round; leaf tip acute to abruptly pointed; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
A. hookeri
            9. Fruit 6–8 mm wide; corolla 5–7 mm; immature inflorescence axis 5–10 mm — serpentine soils
              10. Plants generally mat-like, stems prostrate; leaf blade 0.5–1 cm wide, generally oblanceolate; twigs, inflorescence axis puberulent; (San Francisco — presumed extinct)
subsp. franciscana
              10' Plants mound-like, stems decumbent; leaf blade 1–1.5 cm wide, generally elliptic; twigs, inflorescence axis ± densely tomentose; (n Central Coast, Mount Tamalpais)
subsp. montana
            9' Fruit 3–6 mm wide; corolla 3–6 mm; immature inflorescence axis 3–5 mm
              11. Plants generally 0.5–1 m; blade 2–3 cm; petiole 4–8 mm
subsp. hookeri
              11' Plants generally < 0.5 m; blade 0.8–2 cm; petiole 1–4 mm
                12. Blade elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic, 0.8–1.2 cm, 4–7 mm wide; inflorescence 3–6-flowered; sandy terraces, Central Coast (Arroyo de la Cruz)
subsp. hearstiorum
                12' Blade ± round to round-elliptic, 1–2 cm, 10–15 mm wide; inflorescence 6–10-flowered; serpentine, San Francisco Bay Area (San Francisco Presidio)
subsp. ravenii
  1' Inflorescence a panicle, branches 3–10, 15–30 mm; blades mostly 2–5 cm; plants generally shrub, tree-like, stems generally erect
    13. Inflorescence bracts, flowers evenly spaced on slender, long axes; immature inflorescence generally ascending, axis < 1 mm wide, ± thread-like; buds generally exposed, not concealed by bracts
      14. Blade surfaces not alike, upper surface ± convex, darker above; pedicel 6–9 mm, glandular-hairy; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island)
A. insularis
      14' Blade surfaces alike, both surfaces dark green to glaucous; pedicel generally 2–6 mm, glabrous; mainland
        15. Blade generally 3–5 cm, 1.5–2.5 cm wide; inflorescence bracts 1–1.5 mm, deltate; corolla generally deep pink
A. stanfordiana
          16. Leaf slightly glaucous, ± papillate, ± rough; twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts finely glandular-bristly
subsp. raichei
          16' Leaf bright green, shiny, smooth; twigs, inflorescence axis glabrous or puberulent, not glandular
            17. Plant 0.5–1 m; stems decumbent; petiole 4–8 mm; twigs, inflorescence axis puberulent, dull
subsp. decumbens
            17' Plant 1–2 m; stems ± erect; petiole 8–12 mm; twigs, inflorescence axis glabrous, shiny
subsp. stanfordiana
        15' Blade generally 1–3 cm, 0.5–2 cm wide; inflorescence bracts 1–4 mm, deltate to awl-like, lowest 5–10 mm, ± leaf-like; corolla white to pink-tinged
          18. Leaf blade widely ovate to elliptic, base ± obtuse, rounded, or truncate; pedicel in fruit 6–8 mm; fruit 8–10 mm wide, strongly depressed, reddish brown; stones 3–4 mm wide, side facing fruit wall deeply wrinkled, ribbed — Outer North Coast Ranges (Sonoma Co.)
A. bakeri
            19. Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole densely finely glandular-bristly; leaf blade glandular, rough; petiole 3–6 mm; immature inflorescence axis 10–15 mm; Outer North Coast Ranges (near Camp Meeker, Vine Hill)
subsp. bakeri
            19' Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole generally puberulent to fine tomentose and sparsely glandular; leaf blade not glandular, sparsely puberulent, smooth or slightly rough; petiole 4–8 mm; immature inflorescence axis 15–20 mm; serpentine, Outer North Coast Ranges (The Cedars)
subsp. sublaevis
          18' Leaf blade lanceolate-elliptic to oblanceolate, base wedge-shaped; pedicel in fruit 4–6 mm; fruit 5–7 mm wide, subspheric, whitish to tan, becoming brown; stones 2 mm wide, side facing fruit wall faintly wrinkled
            20. Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole finely tomentose or puberulent, not glandular; leaf blade bright green, shiny, not glandular, smooth; filaments glabrous — Outer North Coast Ranges (Vine Hill)
A. densiflora
            20' Twigs, inflorescence axis, petioles generally glandular-bristly; leaf blade dark green, ± dull, ± glandular, papillate, rough; filaments hairy
A. hispidula
    13' Inflorescence bracts, flowers ± crowded on distal part of axis; immature inflorescence generally nodding or abruptly turned downward, axis > 1 mm wide; bracts overlapping, concealing buds (except A. mewukka)
      21. Leaf gray-green to white-glaucous, dull; blade base generally truncate to slightly lobed (± rounded in A. mewukka)
        22. Stones fused into 1 spheric unit (10–15 mm wide); pulp scanty, not mealy (fruit wall leathery, sticky); San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, Desert Mountains
A. glauca
        22' Stones 3–8, not fused; pulp mealy, thick; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
          23. Pedicel glabrous; twigs, inflorescence axis, flower buds, bracts not sticky; fruit 10–16 mm wide, dark mahogany-brown, glabrous, smooth
A. mewukka
            24. Burl present; plant 1–2 m; blade lanceolate-ovate to oblong-ovate, grayish, 2–4 cm wide; petiole 6–10 mm; immature inflorescence bracts spreading
subsp. mewukka
            24' Burl 0; plant 2–4 m; blade ± round to round-ovate, white-glaucous, 4–7 cm wide; petiole 10–15 mm; immature inflorescence bracts appressed, overlapping
subsp. truei
          23' Pedicel finely glandular-bristly; twigs, inflorescence axis, flower buds, bracts glandular, generally sticky; fruit 6–8 mm wide, reddish brown, generally sticky
A. viscida
            25. Leaf blade finely glandular-hairy, papillate, rough; twigs, inflorescence axis densely glandular-bristly
subsp. mariposa
            25' Leaf blade ± glabrous, smooth; twigs, inflorescence axis generally not glandular-bristly
              26. Ovary and fruit finely glandular-bristly, very sticky; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges
subsp. pulchella
              26' Ovary and fruit ± glabrous, not glandular, not sticky; Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
subsp. viscida
      21' Leaf bright green, shiny (subglaucous in A. manzanita subsp. glaucescens); blade base rounded, obtuse, or wedge-shaped (truncate to slightly lobed in A. patula)
        27. Fruit ± spheric or ovoid; stones mostly fused into 1 ribbed unit; Transverse Ranges
          28. Burl present; stems erect, not forming circular clones; pedicels, ovary puberulent; corolla pink
A. gabrielensis
          28' Burl 0; stems decumbent, rooting when buried, forming circular clones; pedicels, ovary glabrous; corolla white
A. parryana
        27' Fruit depressed-spheric; stones free, separable; Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, SnJT
          29. Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole with golden, glistening, gland-tipped hairs; stems ± decumbent; plants forming circular clones; burl ± 0 or present (Sierra Nevada); fruit dark chestnut-brown
A. patula
          29' Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole mostly finely tomentose, glands not golden, glistening; stems erect; plants not forming circular clones; burl generally 0 (except subsp. roofii); fruit reddish
A. manzanita
            30. Leaf slightly glaucous, dull — North Coast Ranges
subsp. glaucescens
            30' Leaf bright green, shiny
              31. Twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts finely glandular-bristly; blade ± fine papillate, finely scabrous, veins finely bristly — Cascade Range Foothills
subsp. wieslanderi
              31' Twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts ± glabrous or puberulent, not glandular; blade smooth, glabrous
                32. Ovary, fruit hairs gland-tipped; fruit ± sticky — High North Coast Ranges
subsp. elegans
                32' Ovary, fruit glabrous or short-white-hairy, not glandular; fruit not sticky
                  33. Inflorescence branches generally 5–7; immature inflorescence axis slender, 15–25 mm
subsp. manzanita
                  33' Inflorescence branches generally 3–5; immature inflorescence axis stout, < 15 mm
                    34. Burl 0; ovary, fruit glabrous; San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Diablo), s Inner North Coast Ranges (Vaca Mtns)
subsp. laevigata
                    34' Burl present; ovary, fruit ± white-hairy, fruit becoming glabrous; Inner North Coast Ranges (nw Glenn Co.), s Cascade Range Foothills (n Butte Co.)
subsp. roofii

Key to ARCTOSTAPHYLOS Group 3(sects. Foliobracteata, Pictobracteata)

N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Inflorescence bracts thin, deep pink in flower, becoming tan, withering; sepals ± oblong, margin flat, densely glandular-ciliate; pedicels in fruit 15 + mm — San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges (sect. Pictobracteata)
A. pringlei subsp. drupacea
  1' Inflorescence bracts ± thick, green, sometimes reddish, not withering; sepals widely ovate, margin inrolled, not densely glandular-ciliate; pedicels generally < 10 mm (sect. Foliobracteata)
    2. Burl present at stem base or root crown, resprouting after fire; immature inflorescence nodding, branches 3–8, evident, not framed by long bracts
      3. Blade surfaces alike, margin flat; leaves ± ascending to erect; petiole 5–10 mm
A. glandulosa
        4. Twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis, bracts short-soft-hairy, with long, white bristles; glandular hairs generally 0
          5. Leaf bright green, ± shiny; Western Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica, Santa Ynez Mtns)
subsp. mollis
          5' Leaf gray-green, dull; San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, South Coast
            6. Middle, lower inflorescence bracts leaf-like; bristles 0 in 50% of plants; South Coast (San Diego Co.)
subsp. crassifolia
            6' Middle, lower inflorescence bracts scale-like; bristles present in all plants; San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains
subsp. glaucomollis
        4' Twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis, bracts puberulent, finely tomentose, or finely glandular-bristly; bristles or long white hairs 0
          7. Inflorescence bracts mostly scale-like, deltate to awl-like, lowest bracts leaf-like; pedicel in fruit 5–10 mm, > bracts; leaf white-glaucous — e Peninsular Ranges
subsp. adamsii
          7' Inflorescence bracts mostly leaf-like, oblong-lanceolate; pedicel in fruit 2–5 mm; leaf deep green to glaucous
            8. Leaf deep to grayish green; blade generally ovate, base rounded, obtuse, or wedge-shaped; Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area
subsp. glandulosa
            8' Leaf glaucous, dull gray; blade generally round-ovate to ± round, base truncate or ± lobed to obtuse; Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, w Peninsular Ranges
subsp. zacaensis
      3' Blade surfaces not alike, upper surface convex, darker than lower; margin cupped or ± rolled; leaves ± spreading; petiole 2–5 mm
A. tomentosa
        9. Trunk, lower stem bark gray, rough, persistent as flat shreds — Central Coast
          10. Lower surface leaf veins glandular-bristly or glabrous; twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts glandular-bristly or finely tomentose — Jack's Peak, near Monterey
subsp. bracteosa
          10' Lower surface leaf blade densely tomentose; twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts tomentose, not glandular
            11. Twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts with long, white hairs; Los Osos Valley, near San Luis Obispo
subsp. daciticola
            11' Twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts tomentose; Monterey, San Luis Obispo cos.
subsp. tomentosa
        9' Trunk, lower stem bark red, generally smooth (± rough in subsp. rosei)
          12. Hairs (twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis, bracts, pedicels) finely glandular; leaves ± papillate, scabrous; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa islands)
subsp. subcordata
          12' Hairs tomentose to long-white-bristly, not glandular; leaves smooth; mainland
            13. Hairs (twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis, bracts) long-white-bristly
              14. Lower leaf surface densely tomentose; twigs densely tomentose; San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Cruz Mtns)
subsp. crinita
              14' Lower leaf surface glabrous to sparsely tomentose; twigs ± puberulent; Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges
subsp. crustacea
            13' Hairs not long-white-bristly
              15. Lower leaf surface tomentose; pedicel, ovary tomentose; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa islands)
subsp. insulicola
              15' Lower leaf surface ± glabrous; pedicel, ovary short-white-hairy or becoming glabrous; mainland
                16. Pedicel, ovary becoming glabrous; lower stem bark ± smooth; Central Coast (La Purisima Hills)
subsp. eastwoodiana
                16' Pedicel, ovary white-hairy; lower stem bark rough; Central Coast (Mount Tamalpais to s Monterey Co.)
subsp. rosei
    2' Burl 0, not resprouting after fire; immature inflorescence generally ascending or reflexed, generally framed by long bracts
      17. Leaves ± well spaced, not overlapping, not clasping; petioles generally 5–10 mm
        18. Immature inflorescence bell-shaped (± enclosed by spreading or recurved outer bracts); twigs, inflorescence axis, leaves generally canescent, finely tomentose, or white-downy, not long-bristly; pedicels generally recurved in fruit
          19. Immature inflorescence generally ascending to erect, peduncle curved or abruptly bent; inflorescence a panicle with 2–5 branches, framed by appressed or stiffly spreading bracts; leaf base truncate to slightly lobed
            20. Pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous; twigs, inflorescence axis finely tomentose, not glandular; pedicel strongly recurved in fruit; immature inflorescence bracts 7–14 mm, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; Outer South Coast Ranges (serpentine, Santa Lucia Mtns)
A. obispoensis
            20' Pedicel finely glandular-bristly; ovary densely white-hairy; fruit hairy; twigs, inflorescence axis finely tomentose, glandular; pedicel straight in fruit; immature inflorescence bracts 3–6 mm, lanceolate, acute; Inner North Coast Ranges
A. malloryi
          19' Immature inflorescence generally nodding, peduncle recurved; inflorescence a raceme or with 1–2 branches, framed by long, recurved bracts; leaf base generally ± wedge-shaped, obtuse, or rounded
            21. Pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous; filament glabrous; inflorescence branches 0–1; blade oblong-elliptic, tip generally rounded, base ± wedge-shaped; San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Cruz Mtns)
A. silvicola
            21' Pedicel, ovary, fruit white-hairy; filament base hairy; inflorescence branches 0–3; leaf blade ovate to round-ovate, tip acute to abruptly soft-pointed, base obtuse to rounded; North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area (Mt. Tamalpais, Loma Prieta)
A. canescens
              22. Twigs, inflorescence axis, pedicel, ovary, fruit not glandular
subsp. canescens
              22' Twigs, inflorescence axis, pedicel, ovary, fruit finely glandular
subsp. sonomensis
        18' Immature inflorescence not bell-shaped (except A. nortensis); twigs, inflorescence axis long-bristly or densely glandular-bristly; leaves generally becoming glabrous; pedicels generally straight in fruit
          23. Inflorescence a raceme, sometimes with 1 short branch; pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous (see also A. nortensis); glands 0
            24. Corolla 8–9 mm, conic, throat tapered; filament base hairy; blade 1–3 cm, glaucous, dull, base truncate to slightly lobed; s Outer South Coast Ranges (near Santa Margarita)
A. pilosula
            24' Corolla 6–7 mm, subspheric, throat not tapered; filament base glabrous; blade 2–4 cm, grayish green, ± shiny, base rounded to wedge-shaped; s Central Coast (hills se of San Luis Obispo)
A. wellsii
          23' Inflorescence branches 3–10 (1–2 in A. nortensis); pedicel, ovary, fruit white-hairy or finely glandular-bristly
            25. Twigs, petiole, inflorescence axis generally with long, white bristles; ovary densely white-tomentose; immature inflorescence branches ± concealed, framed by long, outer bracts
              26. Inflorescence branches 3–8; pedicel finely glandular-bristly; blade 4–6 cm, 2–3 cm wide; petiole 4–10 mm; immature inflorescence bracts 10–18 mm, straight, acuminate
A. columbiana
              26' Inflorescence branches only 1–2, short; pedicel puberulent; blade 2–4 cm, 1–2 cm wide; petiole 4–5 mm; immature inflorescence bracts 5–12 mm, recurved, obtuse
A. nortensis
            25' Twigs, petiole, inflorescence axis ± finely glandular-bristly, long, white bristles 0; ovary finely glandular-bristly; immature inflorescence branches clearly evident, not concealed by long bracts
              27. Fruit depressed-spheric, 8–12 mm wide, stones ± separable; blade dark green, slightly glaucous, ± finely glandular-bristly, papillate, scabrous; immature inflorescence branches nodding; c Central Coast (Fort Ord), Outer South Coast Ranges (Toro Mtn, nw Monterey Co.)
A. montereyensis
              27' Fruit ± spheric, 6–8 mm wide, stones ± fused into 1 unit; blade glaucous, finely tomentose, becoming glabrous, smooth; immature inflorescence branches stiffly ascending; sw Peninsular Ranges
A. otayensis
      17' Leaves crowded, strongly overlapping, clasping or not, sessile or petiole generally < 6 mm and generally < sinus between basal lobes
        28. Bark rough, persistent as flat shreds, gray or ± reddish (upper stem bark ± smooth, reddish in A. cruzensis)
          29. Blade surfaces not alike, upper surface generally convex, darker than lower, margin curved down; inflorescence axis ± densely white-bristly
            30. Petioles 2–5 mm; blade oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic, upper surface dark green, shiny, lower surface white-tomentose; pedicel ± glabrous; s Central Coast (near Morro Bay)
A. morroensis
            30' Petioles < 2 mm; blade ovate to triangular-ovate, upper surface slightly glaucous, ± dull, lower surface glabrous; pedicel white-hairy; north-central Central Coast, s San Francisco Bay Area (Pajaro Hills)
A. pajaroensis
          29' Blade surfaces alike, flat, not different in color or hairiness; twigs, inflorescence axis tomentose, bristles 0 or sparse
            31. Upper stem bark ± smooth, reddish; twigs, inflorescence axes (2–3) ± sparsely bristly; blade oblong-ovate; pedicel, ovary, fruit white-tomentose
A. cruzensis
            31' Upper stem bark rough, grayish; twigs, inflorescence axis not white-bristly; blade ovate to round-ovate; pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous
A. osoensis
        28' Bark smooth, red throughout
          32. Blade base ± truncate to slightly lobed, leaves not clasping; petiole mostly 3–6 mm
            33. Inflorescence a raceme, sometimes with 1 short branch; blade narrowly lanceolate-oblong, scabrous; twigs, petioles, inflorescence axes finely short-glandular-hairy, not long-white-hairy; fruit 6–8 mm wide
A. virgata
            33' Inflorescence a panicle, branches 3–10; blade widely lanceolate to round-ovate, ± smooth; twigs, petioles, inflorescence axes long-white-hairy and glandular-bristly; fruit 8–15 mm wide
              34. Plant < 2 m, stems decumbent to erect; inflorescence axes 3–5 (short, crowded); fruit 8–11 mm wide — n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island)
A. confertiflora
              34' Plant 2–8m+, tree-like; inflorescence axes 4–10; fruit 10–15 mm wide
                35. Leaves lanceolate-ovate to elliptic, flat; pedicels 2–5 mm; pedicel, ovary densely white-hairy, sparsely glandular; fruit spheric, sparsely hairy; s Channel Islands (Santa Catalina Island)
A. catalinae
                35' Leaves ± oblong to ovate, ± swaybacked; pedicels 5–15 mm; pedicel, ovary finely glandular-bristly; fruit depressed-spheric, glandular-hairy, sticky; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Mtns)
2 A. hooveri
          32' Blade base deeply lobed, leaves clasping; petiole generally < 4 mm (3–6 mm in A. hooveri)
            36. Pedicel in fruit strongly recurved; immature inflorescence bell-shaped, ± enclosed by large, outer bracts; leaves, twigs, inflorescence axis generally finely tomentose, canescent, or short-soft-hairy; bristles present or 0
              37. Pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous; inflorescence axes 1–3; twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis finely tomentose; bristles, glands 0; lower inflorescence bracts ± linear-lanceolate, narrowly acuminate; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Mtns)
A. luciana
              37' Pedicel, ovary, fruit densely white-hairy to finely glandular-bristly; inflorescence axes 3–5; twigs, petioles, inflorescence axis, bracts tomentose and long-white-bristly; lower inflorescence bracts ovate to widely oblong-lanceolate, acute; San Francisco Bay Area
                38. Pedicel, ovary, fruit densely white-hairy, glands 0; long, white hairs generally not frayed at tip, not glandular; Mount Diablo
A. auriculata
                38' Pedicel, ovary, fruit finely glandular-bristly; long, white hairs frayed at tip, sometimes plumose, glandular hairs present; Santa Cruz Mtns
A. glutinosa
            36' Pedicel in fruit generally straight; twigs, inflorescence axis mostly bristly, gland-tipped or not
              39. Inflorescence ± a raceme, branches < 3, compact; pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous or hairy, not glandular, not sticky; twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts densely bristly, not glandular
                40. Pedicel, ovary densely white-hairy; twigs, inflorescence axis densely tomentose; leaf base slightly lobed; n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island)
A. viridissima
                40' Pedicel, ovary, fruit glabrous; twigs, inflorescence axis finely short-hairy; leaf base deeply lobed; mainland
                  41. Blade 2–4 cm, ± oblong-ovate, slightly glaucous; inflorescence bracts linear-lanceolate, narrowly acuminate; corolla 6–8 mm, conic; filament base hairy; fruit 8–12 mm wide; s Central Coast (Pecho Hills, sw San Luis Obispo Co.)
A. pechoensis
                  41' Blade 1–2.5 cm, round to round-ovate, bright green; inflorescence bracts ovate to lanceolate-ovate, acute; corolla 4–6 mm, ± spheric; filament glabrous; fruit 5–8 mm wide; s Outer South Coast Ranges (w Santa Barbara Co.)
A. purissima
              39' Inflorescence a panicle, branches 3–10; pedicel finely glandular-bristly; ovary, fruit finely glandular-bristly, sticky (glabrous in A. refugioensis); twigs, inflorescence axis, bracts generally ± glandular-bristly
                42. Fruit ovoid to spheric, glabrous, smooth, tip abruptly soft-pointed; stones fused into a spheric unit; inflorescence bracts elliptic, obtuse; leaves glabrous, glaucous
A. refugioensis
                42' Fruit depressed-spheric, glandular-hairy, ± sticky, tip flat or depressed; stones separable; inflorescence bracts lanceolate, acute or acuminate; leaves generally hairy
                  43. Blade oblong, 4–7 cm, surfaces not alike, upper surface ± convex; immature inflorescence axes spreading — w San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Cruz Mtns)
A. andersonii
                  43' Blade generally ovate, 3–5 cm, surfaces alike, ± flat; immature inflorescence axes crowded, ± clustered
                    44. Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole bristly to fine-bristly, not glandular; inflorescence bracts sparsely ciliate or becoming glabrous; blade glabrous, smooth, glaucous — eastern San Francisco Bay Area (Berkeley and Oakland Hills)
A. pallida
                    44' Twigs, inflorescence axis, petiole glandular-bristly; inflorescence bracts finely glandular-ciliate; blade ± glandular-hairy, rough, papillate
                      45. Blade gray-hairy, ± sticky, 4–6 cm, oblong-ovate, ± sway-backed, tip curved up; pedicel in fruit 6–15 mm
                        46. Petiole 3–6 mm; blade base lobed, ± not clasping; pedicel in fruit 10–15 mm; fruit 10–15 mm wide, dark brown; Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Mtns)
2 A. hooveri
                        46' Petiole < 3 mm; blade base deeply lobed, strongly clasping; pedicel in fruit 6–10 mm; fruit 6–8 mm wide, light orange- to red-brown; w San Francisco Bay Area (Kings, Montara Mtns)
A. regismontana
                      45' Blade green, sparsely hairy, not sticky, 2–4 cm, ± round to ovate, flat; pedicel in fruit 3–6 mm — w San Francisco Bay Area
                        47. Stems prostrate to decumbent, plants < 1 m; leaves spreading, blade round-ovate; inflorescence bract ovate to widely lanceolate; pedicel 3–5 mm; corolla 3–5 mm, ± spheric, throat short, abrupt; San Bruno Mtn
A. imbricata
                        47' Stems erect, plants 1–5 m; leaves ascending, blade oblong-ovate; inflorescence bract lanceolate; pedicel 5–6 mm; corolla 6–9 mm, ± conic, throat tapered; Montara and San Bruno Mtns
A. montaraensis

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