Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

Names are linked to treatments from the Manual


N.B.: couplets are linked, e.g., 1. is linked to 1'.

  1. Flowers generally replaced by bulblets; weedy
A. vineale
  1' Flowers never replaced by bulblets
    2. Leaf 1 per stem, cylindric; ovary crests 6, prominent, ± triangular
      3. Stigma ± entire
        4. Stamens exserted; perianth parts 5–9 mm, inner > outer, margins irregular to jagged; stem 20–50 cm
A. sanbornii var. sanbornii
        4' Stamens included; perianth parts 8–20 mm, ± equal, entire; stem generally < 20 cm
          5. Outer bulb coat sculpture clearly net-like with ± long, twisted meshes
A. nevadense
          5' Outer bulb coat sculpture 0, only 2–3 vertical rows of cells above root pad, or indistinctly polygonal
            6. Perianth parts 8–12 mm; pedicels slender, > flowers
A. atrorubens
              7. Perianth generally deep red-purple (white), lanceolate, long-acuminate
var. atrorubens
              7' Perianth pale pink, dark-veined, ± ovate, acute to acuminate
var. cristatum
            6' Perianth parts 12–20 mm; pedicels stout, generally < flowers
              8. Perianth parts linear-lanceolate, long-tapered; daughter bulbs 1–2, stalked, basal; Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges
A. monticola
              8' Perianth parts lanceolate, acute; daughter bulbs 0; n San Bernardino Mountains, Desert Mountains
A. parishii
      3' Stigma lobes 3, often slender and recurved
        9. Stamens exserted or = perianth
          10. Inner perianth parts 1.5 × outer; ovary crests entire or notched
A. sanbornii var. congdonii
          10' Perianth parts ± equal; ovary crests dentate to deeply cut
A. howellii
            11. Stem generally ± 20(10–35) cm, slender; flowers generally 10–30; perianth generally pink to lavender; ovary crests purple; flowers spring — s San Joaquin Valley and adjacent mtns
var. howellii
            11' Stem 20–60 cm, stout; flowers generally > 50; perianth generally white; ovary crest white or green; flowers ± early summer
              12. Stamens exserted 0–2 mm; n Western Transverse Ranges
var. clokeyi
              12' Stamens exserted 2–4 mm; s Inner South Coast Ranges
var. sanbenitense
        9' Stamens including
          13. Perianth parts (at least inner) dentate to jagged
            14. Stem 25–40 cm
A. jepsonii
            14' Stem 5–20 cm
              15. Bulb coats brown to gray; perianth ± spreading, tips reflexed, inner parts jagged
A. abramsii
              15' Bulb coats red-brown; perianth erect, ± straight, inner parts dentate
A. denticulatum
          13' Perianth parts ± entire
            16. Ovary crests entire, notched, or irregular (not dentate)
              17. Perianth 10–18 mm, maroon or deep red-purple
                18. Perianth deep red-purple, tips reflexed; serpentine, San Francisco Bay Area
A. sharsmithiae
                18' Perianth maroon, outer tips recurved, inner tips spreading to reflexed; s High Sierra Nevada
A. shevockii
              17' Perianth 6–9 mm, white to pink, becoming darker
                19. Inflorescence compact, pedicels straight; perianth parts elliptic to ovate, obtuse to acute
A. munzii
                19' Inflorescence loose, pedicels curved in fruit; perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate
A. parryi
            16' Ovary crests dentate to deeply cut
              20. Perianth deep red-purple, tips generally recurved-spreading
2 A. fimbriatum var. fimbriatum
              20' Perianth white to lavender, midveins darker, tips erect
                21. Flowers generally 8–12 mm
2 A. fimbriatum
                  22. Stem slender, 10–25 cm; East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
var. mohavense
                  22' Stem stout, 10–37 cm; serpentine, s North Coast Ranges
var. purdyi
                21' Flowers generally 6–9 mm
                  23. Stem slender, 7–20 cm; perianth erect; South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges
A. diabolense
                  23' Stem stout, 25–50 cm; perianth spreading from base; serpentine, c Sierra Nevada Foothills
A. tuolumnense
    2' Leaves 2+ per stem (if 1, leaf flat or channeled); ovary crests generally ± 0
      24. Bulb oblong, clustered on stout rhizome — bulb coats finely lined with narrow, vertically oriented cells
        25. Stem 10–40 cm; perianth parts narrowly ovate, acute; stamens included
A. haematochiton
        25' Stem 50–100 cm; perianth parts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; stamens exserted
A. validum
      24' Bulb ovoid to ± spheric; rhizomes 0 or slender, with 1 new bulb at tip
        26. Ovary crests 6, prominent, triangular; daughter bulbs generally clustered at bulb base or on slender rhizome
          27. Leaves generally withered in flower; perianth rigid-keeled, ± shiny in fruit, tip margins rolled inward
A. campanulatum
          27' Leaves generally green in flower; perianth not keeled, papery in fruit, tip margins ± flat
            28. Perianth parts lanceolate, acuminate; s High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
A. bisceptrum var. bisceptrum
            28' Perianth parts ovate to elliptic, acute; n&c California
A. membranaceum
        26' Ovary crests 0 or inconspicuous, not triangular; daughter bulbs 1–3, ± = parent bulb and formed within its coats or on stout rhizomes
          29. Leaves flat or widely channeled, ± sickle-shaped; (dry) plant in fruit breaking at soil surface
            30. Outer bulb coat sculpture clearly net-like throughout
              31. Bulb coat sculpture laterally elongate, rectangular, thin-walled, in ± regular rows
                32. Perianth parts linear-lanceolate
A. anceps
                32' Perianth parts oblanceolate to ovate
                  33. Stem 15–20 cm, inflorescence held well above soil surface; pedicel > flower
A. lemmonii
                  33' Stem 3–10 cm, inflorescence held close to soil surface; pedicel ± = flower
A. punctum
              31' Bulb coat sculpture ± square or polygonal, curved and irregular if laterally elongate
                34. Bulb coat sculpture ± laterally elongate, curved, irregularly arranged
A. tribracteatum
                34' Bulb coat sculpture ± rectangular, square, or polygonal
A. obtusum
                  35. Leaf 1 per stem; perianth parts pink, lanceolate, acute
var. conspicuum
                  35' Leaves 1 or 2 per stem; perianth parts white, oblong-elliptic, obtuse
var. obtusum
            30' Outer bulb coat sculpture 0 or only 2–3 rows of vertical cells above root pad
              36. Stem cylindric or slightly compressed, not winged
                37. Stamens well including
                  38. Leaves straight or barely sickle-shaped; flowers > 10; California Floristic Province
A. cratericola
                  38' Leaves strongly sickle-shaped; flowers generally 5–10; High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
2 A. parvum
                37' Stamens exserted or ± = perianth
                  39. Leaves 2 per stem
A. yosemitense
                  39' Leaf 1 per stem
                    40. Filaments smooth
A. burlewii
                    40' Filaments bumpy or warty near base
A. hoffmanii
              36' Stem flattened, generally winged above
                41. Perianth parts narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate; stamens exserted
A. platycaule
                41' Perianth parts lanceolate to ovate, obtuse to long-acuminate; stamens including
                  42. Leaves generally 6–8 mm wide; perianth parts 9–15 mm, long-acuminate
A. falcifolium
                  42' Leaves < 6 mm wide; perianth parts 6–10 mm, obtuse to acute
                    43. Perianth parts lanceolate, acute (tip margins inrolled, so appearing acuminate)
A. tolmiei var. tolmiei
                    43' Perianth parts widely lanceolate to ovate, obtuse, ± flat
                      44. Inner bulb coats white; perianth parts not keeled
2 A. parvum
                      44' Inner bulb coats generally pink to red; perianth parts keeled in fruit
A. siskiyouense
          29' Leaves narrowly channeled to ± cylindric, if flat, not sickle-shaped; plant persistent (sometimes not dry) in fruit
            45. Bulb coat sculpture 0 or obscure
              46. Bulb symmetric, present at flowering; rhizome 0
                47. Longest inflorescence bracts >> pedicels; perianth parts 4.5–7 mm
A. paniculatum var. paniculatum
                47' Longest inflorescence bracts < to = pedicels; perianth parts 7–18 mm
                  48. Inflorescence ± hemispheric; flowers erect; perianth parts widely elliptic, obtuse
A. neapolitanum
                  48' Inflorescence open, ± 1-sided; flowers drooping; perianth parts lanceolate, acute
A. triquetrum
              46' Bulb oblique, gone by flower; new bulbs borne on rhizome tips originating from old bulb root pad
                49. Rhizomes conspicuous, generally > 3 cm; leaves widely channeled, flat, or keeled; perianth parts ovate, spreading, entire
A. unifolium
                49' Rhizomes inconspicuous, < 2 cm; leaves ± cylindric; perianth parts ± lanceolate, erect, at least inner finely serrate
A. bolanderi
                  50. Bulb oblique-ovoid, coats breaking with a serrate edge; perianth parts 8–12 mm, narrowly ovate
var. bolanderi
                  50' Bulb oblique-oblong, tuber-like, coats breaking with an irregular edge; perianth parts 9–14 mm, narrowly lanceolate
var. mirabile
            45' Bulb coat sculpture obvious, net-like (with hand lens), meshes prominent, thick-walled
              51. Bulb coat sculpture square or polygonal
                52. Perianth parts 8–15 mm, spreading or tips reflexed, inner dentate
A. acuminatum
                52' Perianth parts 4–9 mm, erect or spreading from base, entire
A. lacunosum
                  53. Stem 10–25 cm; inflorescence dense, pedicel 0.7–1.5 × flower
                    54. Leaves generally < stem; stem 15–25 cm; flowers generally < 7 mm; s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, w Mojave Desert
A. lacunosum var. kernense
                    54' Leaves > stem; stem 10–20 cm; flowers 7–9 mm; coast, coast ranges
var. lacunosum
                  53' Stem 15–35 cm; inflorescence open, pedicel 1.5–3.5 × flower
                    55. Bracts 2; flower 6–8 mm; Transverse Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
var. davisiae
                    55' Bracts 3; flower 4–6 mm; Inner South Coast Ranges
var. micranthum
              51' Bulb coat sculpture laterally elongate, in ± vertical herringbone pattern, or ± twisted
                56. Bulb coat sculpture in wavy lateral rows (herringbone pattern indistinct); perianth parts spreading, outer ± = inner
                  57. Stem 5–17 cm; perianth parts erect in fruit; flowers persistent — Central Coast
A. hickmanii
                  57' Stem 15–50 cm; perianth parts folding over ovary in fruit; flowers and pedicels deciduous
                    58. Ovary crests 6, lateral, ± rectangular; inflorescence dense, pedicels 0.7–2 × flower
A. amplectens
                    58' Ovary crests 3, central, minute or 0; inflorescence loose, pedicels 1.5–4 × flower length
                      59. Leaves 1–3(4) mm wide, widely channeled or cylindric; inner bulb coats light yellow; perianth translucent in fruit
A. hyalinum
                      59' Leaves (3)4–6 mm wide, keeled, widely channeled or flat; inner bulb coats white; perianth ± opaque, papery in fruit
A. praecox
                56' Bulb coat sculpture in sharply serrate lateral rows, herringbone pattern distinct; perianth parts erect, outer > inner
                  60. Perianth parts folded over ovary in fruit; flowers and pedicels deciduous
A. serra
                  60' Perianth parts erect, rigid in fruit; flowers persistent
                    61. Leaves 3–6, curved to curled; inflorescence dense, pedicels erect, 0.7–2 × flower; sea cliffs
A. dichlamydeum
                    61' Leaves 2–3, straight to ± curved; inflorescence open, pedicels spreading, 1–3 × flower; not sea cliffs
                      62. Inner perianth parts dentate, curled
A. crispum
                      62' Inner perianth parts entire to dentate, not curled
A. peninsulare
                        63. Leaves curved; flowers 8–12 mm, stigma minute, entire; Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
var. franciscanum
                        63' Leaves straight; flowers 10–15 mm, stigma 3-lobed or head-like; widespread
var. peninsulare

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