Search Results — 61 specimen records retrieved (4 records with coordinates)
Results for search: Scientific name=Clarkia unguiculata (including nomenclatural synonyms); Source=All; Collector=Holtsford;   More information: Jepson Online Interchange

Mapping Options:

BerkeleyMapper with county and bioregion layers
BerkeleyMapper without layers.
KML export
(Note: only records with coordinates are mappable)

Download Options:
Select all records · Select records with coordinates

Include annotations and voucher information

PLEASE NOTE: Due to changes in newer versions of Excel, directly copying text from the above selected results does not produce a usable table.
    Follow these steps:
      1. The contents of the selected results window must be copied into a text editor like TextEdit for Mac or WordPad for Windows
      2. The selected results must be saved as a new text document.
      3. This new text document can now be copied into Excel or imported as a tab delimited text file.

(For large data reqests, please contact Jason Alexander, jason_alexander@berkeley.edu.)

 Please cite data retrieved from this page: Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cch_archive/).
 Records are made available under the CCH Data Use Terms.

Click on column header to sort data (* sorts by family); click in leftmost checkbox to select record. CCH Help Page.
Turn on yellow flags to show possible range discrepancies. Read more ...
? Specimen ID Determination * Collector Collection Date Collection Number County Locality Elevation in meters Feedback
  SEINET10492165  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920626 -3-A Amador New york ranch rd, 2.6 mi n of court street (behind sheriff station in jackson) May be a cultivar--doubled petals are common and petals are large. On grassy Roadside under tall oaks and madrones. Comment
  SEINET10492168  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -3-B Amador New york ranch rd, 2.6 mi n of court street (behind sheriff station in jackson) May be a cultivar--doubled petals are common and petals are large. On grassy Roadside under tall oaks and madrones. Comment
  UCR56021  Clarkia unguiculata Tim P. Holtsford 1986-5-30 860530- 08 San Benito South Coast Range, Panoche Road (County Route J1), 1.4 mi. [northwest] of Antelope Fire Station [36 deg. 38' 37.8" N, 121 deg. 01' 43.7" W], c. 40 mi. south of Hollister 590 Comment
  UCR56022  Clarkia unguiculata Tim P. Holtsford 1986-5-30 860530- 09 San Benito South Coast Range, CA Hwy 25 (Airline Hwy), 11.5 miles south of Panoche Rd., c. 22 miles south of Hollister 305 Comment
  SEINET10492156  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-25 Holtsford 920525 -2 Butte Cherokee rd, 0.15 mi s of oregon gulch rd (southern intersection of these two Rds). Ne-facing roadcut under oaks, digger pines, with rhus, avena. Several Hundred plants scattered about 50 yards up the rd. Some plants appear to have The cr- gene (or something like it). Most flowering over. Comment
  SEINET10492157  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-25 Holtsford 920525 -3 Placer Folsom-auburn rd, 2.0 mi s of corner of lincoln and commercial avenue in old Downtown auburn. N-facing roadcut. Comment
  SEINET10492158  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-23 Holtsford 920523 -2 Sonoma Mark west springs rd, 0.1 mi w of ursuline rd, at milepost "ldtr 362+00." W- Facing slope with oaks, rhus, heracleum. Clarkia cocinna is sympatric. Comment
  SEINET10492159  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-20 Holtsford 920520 -4 Santa Clara Coyote lake co park, 0.4 mi n of park office. Ne-facing roadcut, under oaks, Laurus nobilis (?), With elderberry, currants, salvia, rhus. Comment
  SEINET10492160  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-19 Holtsford 920519 -1 San Benito Clear creek rd, 1.9 mi e of los gatos creek rd (n of coalingua). Oak/digger Pine woodland with lots of serpentine nearby (though not apparently at the Clarkia site). Little or no slope at this site--unusual for phaeostoma pop Sites. Comment
  SEINET10492161  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -4 Tulare Mineral king rd, 2.35 mi se of state hwy 198. Pop extends sporadically for Another mile beyond this site. Oak-digger woodland, flowering almost finished. Comment
  SEINET10492162  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -3 Amador New york ranch rd, 2.6 mi n of court st (behind sheriff station in jackson). May be a cultivar--doubled petals are common and petals are large. On grassy Roadside under tall oaks and madrones. Comment
  SEINET10492163  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-24 Holtsford 920524 -1 Lake New long valley, 1.5 (maybe 1.65) mi n of state hwy 20. Ne-facing rocky/gravel Roadcut (pop doesn't extend into grassy area above roadcut), under oaks, digger Pines, elderberry, poison oak. Only 100-200 plants and not much seed produc- Tion. Sympatric with another clarkia (sp). Comment
  SEINET10492164  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -6 Tuolumne Buchanan rd, 1.45 mi ne of its origin in tuolomne city, 1.1 mi w of bridge over N fork of tuolomne river, usfs 2n208. All petals seem to be crinkled. Several Very large plants (>1m tall with many stems) at lower margin of oak-digger Woodland. Comment
  SEINET10492166  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-6-12 Holtsford 920612 -1-B Monterey Carmel valley rd, s of carmel village, 1.1 mi n of small bridge and 15.0 mile Marker, 0.25 mi n of san clemente drive. W-facing roadcut with oaks (with Tillandsia), rhus (toxicodendron), mimulus (yellow flower), currant. Flowering Almost over. Comment
  SEINET10492167  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-6-12 Holtsford 920612 -1-A Monterey Carmel valley rd, s of carmel village, 1.1 mi n of small bridge and 15.0 mile Marker, 0.25 mi n of san clemente drive. W-facing roadcut with oaks (with Tillandsia), rhus (toxicodendron), mimulus (yellow flower), currant. Flowering Almost over. Comment
  SEINET10492169  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -3-C Fresno Dunlap rd, 1.85 mi se of state hwy 180 (king's canyon rd). 100-200 Plants off Roadside. Oak-digger woodland. Buds look typical (not globose). Petals are Pink and purple, no crinkled petals. Flowering almost finished. There is c.u. All along dunlap rd to hwy 245. Comment
  SEINET10492170  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -3-B Fresno Dunlap rd, 1.85 mi se of state hwy 180 (king's canyon rd). 100-200 Plants off Roadside. Oak-digger woodland. Buds look typical (not globose). Petals are Pink and purple, no crinkled petals. Flowering almost finished. There is c.u. All along dunlap rd to hwy 245. Comment
  SEINET10492171  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -5-A Mariposa Hwy 140 just outside of yosemite np, across rd from first buildings outside of Park (motels, restaurants). 1.35 Mi e of el portal rd. Grassy se-facing slope-- Manzanita, oaks, pines above. Sympatric with c. Williamsonii (t. Holtsford 920527-6). Buds globose. Comment
  SEINET10492172  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -1-A Madera Fresno flats rd (#425b), 0.1 mi e of state hwy 41, s of oakhurst. On grassy W-facing slope with ailanthus, oaks. A few hundred scattered plants with c. Cylindrica and c. Williamsonii. C.u. Extends to 0.2 mi where poison oak over- Grows the roadcut. Just beginning to flower. Comment
  SEINET10492173  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-31 Holtsford 920531 -1-B Los Angeles Mandeville canyon rd, just n and across the st from 3676 canyon rd. Coastal Sage-scrub with oaks, sycamores, elderberry, many cultivars. Comment
  SEINET10492174  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -1-B Madera Fresno flats rd (#425b), 0.1 mi e of state hwy 41, s of oakhurst. On grassy W-facing slope with ailanthus, oaks. A few hundred scattered plants with c. Cylindrica and c. Williamsonii. C.u. Extends to 0.2 mi where poison oak over- Grows the roadcut. Just beginning to flower. Comment
  SEINET10492175  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -1-C Madera Fresno flats rd (#425b), 0.1 mi e of state hwy 41, s of oakhurst. On grassy W-facing slope with ailanthus, oaks. A few hundred scattered plants with c. Cylindrica and c. Williamsonii. C.u. Extends to 0.2 mi where poison oak over- Grows the roadcut. Just beginning to flower. Comment
  SEINET10492176  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -2-A Fresno Toll house rd, 1.75 mi n of tollhouse p.o., 3.55 Mi s of shaver springs rd. Oak Digger woodland. Collection is from within 1/4 mi below the pullout. Many more C.u. From miles 15.7 to 16.3 mi n of sample rd (outside of clovis), and another Purple, bowl-shaped species (probably c. Cylindrica) is common. Comment
  SEINET10492177  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -1-D Madera Fresno flats rd (#425b), 0.1 mi e of state hwy 41, s of oakhurst. On grassy W-facing slope with ailanthus, oaks. A few hundred scattered plants with c. Cylindrica and c. Williamsonii. C.u. Extends to 0.2 mi where poison oak over- Grows the roadcut. Just beginning to flower. Comment
  SEINET10492178  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -2-B Fresno Toll house rd, 1.75 mi n of tollhouse p.o., 3.55 Mi s of shaver springs rd. Oak Digger woodland. Collection is from within 1/4 mi below the pullout. Many more C.u. From miles 15.7 to 16.3 mi n of sample rd (outside of clovis), and another Purple, bowl-shaped species (probably c. Cylindrica) is common. Comment
  SEINET10492179  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -3-A- Fresno Dunlap rd, 1.85 mi se of state hwy 180 (king's canyon rd). 100-200 Plants off Roadside. Oak-digger woodland. Buds look typical (not globose). Petals are Pink and purple, no crinkled petals. Flowering almost finished. There is c.u. All along dunlap rd to hwy 245. Comment
  SEINET10492180  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-28 Holtsford 920528 -2-C Fresno Toll house rd, 1.75 mi n of tollhouse p.o., 3.55 Mi s of shaver springs rd. Oak Digger woodland. Collection is from within 1/4 mi below the pullout. Many more C.u. From miles 15.7 to 16.3 mi n of sample rd (outside of clovis), and another Purple, bowl-shaped species (probably c. Cylindrica) is common. Comment
  SEINET10492181  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -2-C Monterey Cholame valley rd, 1.85 mi n of vineyard canyon rd, 11.85 mi n of monterrey co Line. Roadside pop with oak-digger pine vegetation, including elderberry, Salvia, avena. Comment
  SEINET10492182  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-13 Holtsford 920513 -1-A Kern Ranchiera rd, 8.9-9.1 mi n of state hwy 178 (kern canyon hwy). Engelmann oak/ Digger pine savannah. Huge pop with several thousand plants. Comment
  SEINET10492183  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -2-B Monterey Cholame valley rd, 1.85 mi n of vineyard canyon rd, 11.85 mi n of monterrey co Line. Roadside pop with oak-digger pine vegetation, including elderberry, Salvia, avena. Comment
  SEINET10492184  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-20 Holtsford 920520 -3-A San Benito Panoche pass rd, 0.1 mi n of milepost "98 17.00," 16.2 mi s of state hwy 25 (s Of hollister, n of pinnacles, n.m.). Pop is on very rocky e-facing slope with Grasses, buckwheat, under oak/digger pine woods. Comment
  SEINET10492185  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-20 Holtsford 920520 -3-B San Benito Panoche pass rd, 0.1 mi n of milepost "98 17.00," 16.2 mi s of state hwy 25 (s Of hollister, n of pinnacles, n.m.). Pop is on very rocky e-facing slope with Grasses, buckwheat, under oak/digger pine woods. Comment
  SEINET10492186  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -1-A Ventura Along state hwy 33, along matilija creek. 0.4 Mi s of tunnel entrance, 1.6 Mi n of matilija rd. Approx 200-300 plants under big oaks with lots of Poison oak. Sedum growing on rocks nearby. 457 Comment
  SEINET10492187  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -5-B Mariposa Hwy 140 just outside of yosemite np, across rd from first buildings outside of Park (motels, restaurants). 1.35 Mi e of el portal rd. Grassy se-facing slope-- Manzanita, oaks, pines above. Sympatric with c. Williamsonii (t. Holtsford 920527-6). Buds globose. Comment
  SEINET10492188  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -1-A El Dorado State hwy 49, 0.15 mi s of riverwood drive, 5.3 mi n of state hwy 50. 300-500 Large healthy plants on n-nw-facing roadcut with oaks, walnuts, rhus, aeculus. An ivy has taken over the more stable parts of the slope and c.u. Is not found In those places--c.u. Seems to do well on crumbling slopes. Comment
  SEINET10492189  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -1-C El Dorado State hwy 49, 0.15 mi s of riverwood drive, 5.3 mi n of state hwy 50. 300-500 Large healthy plants on n-nw-facing roadcut with oaks, walnuts, rhus, aeculus. An ivy has taken over the more stable parts of the slope and c.u. Is not found In those places--c.u. Seems to do well on crumbling slopes. Comment
  SEINET10492190  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -1-B El Dorado State hwy 49, 0.15 mi s of riverwood drive, 5.3 mi n of state hwy 50. 300-500 Large healthy plants on n-nw-facing roadcut with oaks, walnuts, rhus, aeculus. An ivy has taken over the more stable parts of the slope and c.u. Is not found In those places--c.u. Seems to do well on crumbling slopes. Comment
  SEINET10492191  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-12 Holtsford 920512 -5 Kern Bodfish-caliente rd, 3.3 mi n of caliente post office. 25.7 Mi s of jct with Kern canyon rd (in bodfish). Small pop, sympatric with c. Xantiana; both Were grazed before seed was collected. Oak/digger woodland. Comment
  SEINET10492192  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-14 Holtsford 920514 -1 Tulare Deer creek rd (tulare co m-112) between mile posts 13.00 and 13.50. 7.0 Mi nw Of hot springs resort in ca hot springs. On grassy, s-facing slope above rd. Digger pine/oak savannah with aesculus californica. Comment
  SEINET10492193  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-29 Holtsford 920529 -1 Tulare Reservation rd, just w of the entrance to the tule indian reservation, 8.25- 8.4 Mi se of state hwy 190. Nw-facing rocky slope that probably predates the Rd; not a roadcut. The site is along the south fork of the tule river and has Riparian vegetation--populus, platanus, vitis, as well as oaks, grasses, Phacelia, and aesculus. Flowering season seems prolonged here--maybe a late Rain or flood--many plants have both mature fruit and flower buds on them. Comment
  SEINET10492194  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-30 Holtsford 920530 -2 Los Angeles Mandeville canyon rd. Coastal sage-scrub with oaks, sycamores, elderberry, many Cultivars. Comment
  SEINET10492195  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-12 Holtsford 920512 -2 Kern Kern canyon hwy, 4.8 mi ne of canyon mouth. N-facing slope with typical veg- Etation, including rhus and clarkia cylindrica. Comment
  SEINET10492196  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -2 Tuolumne Cherry lake rd, 0.8 mi s of cottonwood rd (usfs 3no1 south). Ponderosa pine Forest with manzanita, cedar, broad-leaved oaks, currants. Sympatric with c. Biloba (t. Holtsford 920527-1), and c. Rhomboidea (t. Holtsford 920527-3). Pre- Flowering. Comment
  SEINET10492197  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-16 Holtsford 920516 -2 San Luis Obispo Hwy 58, 1.6 mi e of navajo rd. Roadside pop, n-facing roadcut. Pop has only 4 Plants. Voucher is a stem from one of these plants. Comment
  SEINET10492198  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-6-5 Holtsford 920605 -1 San Diego Old river rd, ca 1/4 mi w of dentro de lomas rd. Large pop (several hundred Plants over 200-300 yards) on a n-facing roadcut just n of a small blind Canyon along the san luis rey river. Dense vegetation: oaks, elderberry, Artemesia, eriogonum fasciculatum, brassica, bromus, mimulus (flowers red With yellow throat). Most of the pop finished flowering. Comment
  SEINET10492199  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-7-3 Holtsford 920703 -2 Los Angeles Under the interchange between i-5 and state hwy 14. Park by a metal gate that Goes down the rr tracks, pop is on a ne-facing slope, ca 30 yards s of gate. Ne-facing slope. Blue oaks, tree tobacco, anise, phacelia, atriplex, puncture Vine, lots of weeds. Vegetation looks like it's closing in; c.u. Probably will Not persist. Comment
  SEINET10492200  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-6-13 Holtsford 920613 -1 Contra Costa Morgan territory rd, se of concord, 1.35 mi s of marsh creek rd (clayton rd), 0.1 Mi n of shale cliff court. Roadside pop, n-facing slope with oaks, digger Pines, poison oak. Most flowering over, fruits still green. Comment
  SEINET10492201  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-6-12 Holtsford 920612 -3 San Luis Obispo Peachy canyon rd, w of paso robles, 0.5 mi w of old settler rd. On gravelly Slope with oaks and poison oak. Most flowering over but fruits still green. Comment
  SEINET10492202  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-11 Holtsford 920511 -1-A Kern Clear creek rd (exit at hart flat from state hwy 58 between tehachipi & bakers- Field). 1.2 Mi e of hart oaks, tejon rd. Ne-facing roadcut/slope with oaks (Probably quercus engelmanii), asclepias, bromus, avena, lupinus, clarkia Williamsonii, (aesculus californica, platanus racemosa, pinus sabiniana nearby But not closely associated). 200-300 Plants evident. Plants are infested with A mite which seems to be eating pollen. Comment
  SEINET10492203  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-11 Holtsford 920511 -1-B Kern Clear creek rd (exit at hart flat from state hwy 58 between tehachipi & bakers- Field). 1.2 Mi e of hart oaks, tejon rd. Ne-facing roadcut/slope with oaks (Probably quercus engelmanii), asclepias, bromus, avena, lupinus, clarkia Williamsonii, (aesculus californica, platanus racemosa, pinus sabiniana nearby But not closely associated). 200-300 Plants evident. Plants are infested with A mite which seems to be eating pollen. Comment
  SEINET10837682  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-16 Holtsford 920516 -3 San Luis Obispo Enter los padres nf from hwy 58 at navajo rd, head s into nf, 1.8 mi later go Left at "t" then stay right at "v" (head toward navajo camp). After crossing A wash immediately take a hard (<90o) left turn (don't go through a big metal Gate). The pop extends from about 300-1000 yards down this rd which heads e-w Along a creek/wash. N-facing slope with oaks, ribes, rhus. Several hundred Plants, just beginning to flower. Comment
  SEINET10870502  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -3 Fresno Parkfield-coalingua rd, 4.2 mi s of state hwy 198 (then 10.5 mi e to coalingua) 29.1 Mi n of state hwy 41/46. Several hundred plants on nw-facing rock/gravel Slope. Very little other vegetation (some avena). Oak/digger pine habitat where There's soil but these clarkias are growing in gravel. Some plants in more Typical habitat at the edges of this pop, but most are small in stature with Small flowers. Comment
  SEINET10870503  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -4-A Tuolumne Cherry lake rd, 1.6 mi s of (usfs?) 1N45, 3.65 mi n of mather rd (1so2). Grassy Roadside under aesculus, oaks. Comment
  SEINET10870504  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -4-C Tuolumne Cherry lake rd, 1.6 mi s of (usfs?) 1N45, 3.65 mi n of mather rd (1so2). Grassy Roadside under aesculus, oaks. Comment
  SEINET10903369  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -1-B Ventura Along state hwy 33, along matilija creek. 0.4 Mi s of tunnel entrance, 1.6 Mi n of matilija rd. Approx 200-300 plants under big oaks with lots of Poison oak. Sedum growing on rocks nearby. 457 Comment
  SEINET10903370  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-13 Holtsford 920513 -1-B Kern Ranchiera rd, 8.9-9.1 mi n of state hwy 178 (kern canyon hwy). Engelmann oak/ Digger pine savannah. Huge pop with several thousand plants. Comment
  SEINET10936405  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -4-B Tuolumne Cherry lake rd, 1.6 mi s of (usfs?) 1N45, 3.65 mi n of mather rd (1so2). Grassy Roadside under aesculus, oaks. Comment
  SEINET10969624  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-26 Holtsford 920526 -5 Amador Electra rd, 0.25 mi w of state hwy 49. Big pop (>1000 plants) above mokelumne River with oaks, elderberry, buckeye, ailanthus. Near end of flowering. Comment
  SEINET10969625  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-31 Holtsford 920531 -1-A Los Angeles Mandeville canyon rd, just n and across the st from 3676 canyon rd. Coastal sage-scrub with oaks, sycamores, elderberry, many cultivar. Comment
  SEINET10969626  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-18 Holtsford 920518 -2-A Monterey Cholame valley rd, 1.85 mi n of vineyard canyon rd, 11.85 mi n of monterrey co Line. Roadside pop with oak-digger pine vegetation, including elderberry, Salvia, avena. Comment
  SEINET10969627  Clarkia unguiculata Tim Holtsford 1992-5-27 Holtsford 920527 -5-C Mariposa Hwy 140 just outside of yosemite np, across rd from first buildings outside of Park (motels, restaurants). 1.35 Mi e of el portal rd. Grassy se-facing slope-- Manzanita, oaks, pines above. Sympatric with c. Williamsonii (t. Holtsford 920527-6). Buds globose. Comment



  Copyright © 2019 Regents of the University of California — Updated 11 January 2019
0.03 processing seconds