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Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to tree, generally hairy
Leaves cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower
Flower bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5, epipetalous (if 4, generally in unequal pairs); ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2-chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral
Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule
Genera in family: ± 90 genera, ± 1900 species: especially Am tropical. Some cultivated (Clerodendron , Lantana , Verbena , Vitex ); some weedy worldwide (Lantana ); some used for wood (Tectona , teak).


Annual to shrub
Stems often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff
Leaves reduced upward; blade entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: spikes, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally very long in fruit
Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, ± radial to bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4, paired; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong
Species in genus: ± 250 species: temp, tropical Am, Medit Eur
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Umber 1979 Syst Bot 4:72–102; Barber 1982 Syst Bot 7:433–456]


V. lasiostachys Link

Perennial 35–80 cm
Stems 1–5+, decumbent to erect; hairs short, spreading
Leaf 4–10 cm, ± ovate, coarsely toothed, generally deeply 1–2-lobed near base, soft-hairy to scabrous; petiole < 2 cm, winged
Inflorescence: spikes 1–3 per stem, 7–25 cm, generally open below (fruits not overlapping); flower bract 3–4.5 mm
Flower: calyx 2.5–4 mm; corolla 2.5–5 mm, blue to purple
Fruit 1–2 mm
Ecology: Open, dry to wet places
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Varieties need further study.

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