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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]



Annual, biennial, perennial herb, generally from taproot
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of upper, reduced leaves
Flower radial, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading orangish to purplish, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit cylindric to 4-winged, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like)
Seeds in generally 2(1–3) rows per chamber, or clustered
Species in genus: 119 species: Am, some widely naturalized
Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Reference: [Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1–91]
Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically ± identical offspring; they are identified as Permanent Translocation Heterozygote.


O. californica (S. Watson) S. Watson

Perennial, rosetted when young, glabrous to densely minutely strigose, also sometimes with longer, spreading hairs; roots generally not fleshy, generally new shoots from laterals
Stem decumbent or ascending, 1–8 dm, peeling
Leaves: cauline 1–6 cm, lanceolate or deltate-ovate, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers in upper axils; buds nodding
Flower: hypanthium 20–40 mm; sepals 15–30 mm, free tips in bud 0–1 mm; petals 15–35 mm, white fading pink
Fruit 20–80 mm, 2–3 mm wide, cylindric, straight or curved
Seeds in 1 row per chamber, 1.4–3 mm, obovate, smooth
Chromosomes: 2n=14,28
Ecology: Sandy or gravelly areas, dunes, desert scrub to pinyon/juniper or ponderosa-pine woodlands
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Western California, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
Distribution outside California: ± sw US, nw Baja California


subsp. eurekensis (Munz & Roos) Klein


Plant: roots fleshy; hairs dense, short, appressed, also long, spreading, wavy
Stem: new rosettes formed at tips
Leaves: cauline deltate-ovate, entire to dentate
Fruit 30–70 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: RARE CA, Dunes, generally with Psorothamnus polydenius
Elevation: 900–1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: n-most Mojave Desert (Eureka Valley, ne Inyo Co.)
Synonyms: O. avita (Klein) Klein subsp. e. (Munz & Roos) Klein
Populations few, large.

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bioregional map for OENOTHERA%20californica%20subsp.%20eurekensis being generated

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Oenothera californica subsp. eurekensis
Retrieve dichotomous key for Oenothera
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