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Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


David M. Thompson

Annual, hairy
Stem erect; branches 0 or few
Leaves alternate, widely lanceolate, entire; veins pinnate
Inflorescence crowded; flowers solitary in axils
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube with sac-like extension at base, lips flaring, ± fan-shaped, lower lip base swollen, closing mouth; stamens 2, included, staminodes 2
Fruit obliquely ovoid, fragile; chambers dehiscent by 1–2 large pores near tip
Seeds ovate, flat, smooth; wing incurved, ± cup-shaped
Species in genus: 2 species: sw US, n Mex
Etymology: (Mojave River, where first collected by John Frémont)


M. breviflora Coville

Plant 5–20 cm
Inflorescence: pedicel 2–5 mm
Flower 15–20 mm; corolla dark yellow, lower lip lobed to within 2–3 mm of swollen base, maroon-spotted only on swollen base
Fruit 8–10 mm
Chromosomes: n=15
Ecology: Gravelly desert slopes, washes
Elevation: 100–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&e Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: s Nevada, nw Arizona
Flowering time: Mar–Apr
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.

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