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David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Gregory K. Brown and W. Dennis Clark

Perennial or shrub, generally resinous
Stems < 2.5 m, leafy
Leaves generally sessile or short-petioled
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid; involucres obconic to bell-shaped; phyllaries in several overlapping series, linear to oblanceolate, generally recurved
Ray flowers 0–25; corollas < 9 mm, yellow
Disk flowers 4–60; corollas 4–10 mm, gradually flared from middle
Fruit 1–10 mm, 4–5-angled; pappus of 20–60 bristles, 2.5–12 mm, white to reddish brown
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America
Etymology: (Barclay Hazard, 19th Century CA botanist)
Reference: [Clark 1979 Madroño 26:105–127]


H. brickellioides (S.F. Blake) W.D. Clark

Shrub 2–8 dm, yellow-glandular, hairy to scabrous
Leaves 10–35 mm, elliptic to obovate, leathery, teeth (0)2–8, teeth and tip spiny
Inflorescence: heads radiate; involucre 4–5 mm wide, cylindric to obconic; phyllaries 15–25, 3–7 mm, lanceolate, acute, recurved (or inner erect), bristly-glandular
Ray flowers 5–8; tube 4–5 mm; ligules 2–4 mm
Disk flowers 8–12; corollas 6–8 mm
Fruit 2–3 mm, hairy; veins 5, white; pappus 5–7 mm, white to brownish
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Limestone outcrops, cliffs
Elevation: 700–2100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Mojave Desert
Flowering time: Apr–Sep
Synonyms: Haplopappus b. S.F. Blake
Locally common.

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