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Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]


Harlan Lewis

Stem prostrate to erect, < 1.5 m, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent; hairs rarely long and spreading
Leaf simple, pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 1–10 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent
Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not
Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4's or 2's, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 5–60 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider above, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or reddish; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider above, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent
Fruit: generally capsule, elongate, rarely short, indehiscent, nut-like
Seeds generally many, rarely 1–2, 0.5–2 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray or mottled
Species in genus: ± 41 species: w North America, 1 South America
Etymology: (Captain William Clark, 1770–1838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition)
Reference: [Lewis & Lewis 1955 UC Publ Bot 20:241–392]
Self-compatible or -pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.

Information on Stem description was contributed by Bob Allen (15 Aug 2004):
I think that should read prostRate, not prostate


C. cylindrica (Jeps.) F.H. Lewis & M.R. Lewis

Stem erect, < 6 dm, puberulent or glabrous
Leaf: petiole < 5 mm; blade 1–6 cm, linear to narrow-lanceolate
Inflorescence: axis in bud recurved at tip; buds pendent
Flower: hypanthium 2–7 mm, ring of hairs below tip; sepals staying fused in 4's, reddish purple; corolla bowl-shaped, petals 1–3.5 cm, fan-shaped, base bright purplish red, middle ± white, above purple to pinkish lavender, middle and above often reddish purple-flecked; stamens 8, outer filaments ± 2 X wider, outer anthers lavender, inner smaller, paler; ovary 4-grooved, stigma beyond anthers
Fruit 2–5 cm, cylindric or wider above; beak 3–5 mm
Ecology: Open grassland, woodland, chaparral
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges.Sspp. intergrade.


subsp. cylindrica

Flower: hypanthium length ± = width; ovary, fruit cylindric
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Habitats and elevations of sp.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges
Horticultural information: SUN: 15, 16, 17, 24 or part SHD: 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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