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A. hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth


Stem 2.5–7 dm
Leaf: blade rolled, < 1 mm diam
Inflorescence ± open; branches, spikelet stalks widely spreading
Spikelet: glumes 5–9 mm, ± equal, base swollen; floret 3–4.5 mm; callus sharp; lemma ± spheric, hairs 2.5–6 mm, awn 3–6 mm, deciduous
Chromosomes: 2n=46,48
Ecology: Dry, well-drained, often sandy soil, desert scrub, sagebrush scrub, pinyon/juniper
Elevation: < 3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, w San Joaquin Valley, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Great Plains, Mexico
Flowering time: Apr–Jul
Synonyms: Oryzopsis h. (Roem. & Schult.) Ricker
Hybrids with other species, including O. X bloomeri (Bol.) Ricker, have narrower florets and awns 12–16 mm. Used by Native Americans for food; highly palatable to livestock
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; STBL.


B. carinatus Hook. & Arn.


Perennial 45–150 cm, sometimes flowering first yr
Leaf: sheath glabrous to soft-hairy; blade 3–12 mm wide, glabrous, scabrous, or soft-hairy
Inflorescence 5–20 cm, ± dense, generally becoming open in fruit; lowest branches generally spreading to ascending; upper branches ascending to erect
Spikelet strongly compressed; glumes keel-like, glabrous to short-soft-hairy, lower 6.5–12 mm, generally 3-veined, upper 9–15 mm, 5–7(9)-veined; florets 7–11; lemma body 12–17 mm, 7–9-veined, keel-like, glabrous to densely short-hairy, awn 3–15 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=56
Ecology: Open scrub, woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Great Central Valley, Sonoran Desert)
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Texas, n Mexico
Plants generally self-pollinating, florets often cleistogamous; forms formerly recognized as species widespread, often occurring together.


C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv.

Stem 6–15 dm, generally branched; nodes 3–8
Leaf: sheath glabrous to hairy near collar; ligule 3–8 mm, fringed; blade 3–8 mm wide, ± drooping, flat, scabrous
Inflorescence 10–25 cm, open to dense; lower branches < 3–8 cm, ± spreading
Spikelet: glumes 3–4.5 mm, scabrous, keel long scabrous, generally purplish; axis sparsely long-hairy; callus hairs ± = lemma, dense; lemma 2.5–4.5 mm, thin, awned just below middle; awn extending ± to lemma tip, straight
Chromosomes: 2n=42–66
Ecology: Moist meadows, bogs, open woodlands
Elevation: 1500–3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e US
Plants with callus hairs 1/2 lemma length may be hybrids with C. nutkaensis and have been called C. lactea Beal. Some plants set seed asexually
Horticultural information: TRY.

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