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Sherry Whitmore and Alan R. Smith

Perennial, on plants, rocks, in rock crevices, less often in soil, humus, or on dunes; rhizome short- to long-creeping, branched, glaucous to not, scaly
Leaves ± alike or of 2 kinds, fertile and sterile; petiole thin to thick, straw-colored or green to brown or black, generally jointed to persistent knob on rhizome; blade generally simple to 1-pinnate, membranous to fleshy or leathery; veins free to fused, generally forked
Sporangia: sori round to elongate, rarely linear, generally 1 per areole, in 1–several rows on each side of segment midrib; indusium 0; spores generally ± elliptic, ± smooth to coarse-tubercled or -ridged, scar linear
Genera in family: ± 46 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially Old World tropical. Numbers of genera, species depend on treatment; many species cultivated.



Sherry Whitmore

Rhizome long-creeping; scales lanceolate, ± brownish, 1-colored or often with darker central area or midstripe
Leaves 0.2–10(20) dm, ± alike or fertile > sterile; petiole glabrous to scaly; blade 1-pinnate to generally deeply pinnately lobed, rarely simple and unlobed, glabrous to hairy, glandular or not, scales on lower surface midrib near base generally lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, generally ± brown; veins free to fused
Sporangia: sori in 1 row on each side of segment midrib, generally raised, sometimes including branched or unbranched, glandular hairs, sporangium-like structures, or shriveled sporangia; spores yellow
Species in genus: ± 160 species: generally New World, tropical, some temp, few boreal
Etymology: (Latin: many feet, from rhizome)
Reference: [Whitmore & Smith 1991 Madroño 38:233–248]
50% or more malformed spores indicates hybrid involving 2 or more species in CA.


P. glycyrrhiza D.C. Eaton


Rhizome 3–6 mm diam, ± glaucous or not, taste sweet-licorice, aftertaste ± bitter; scales 1-colored
Leaves alive until new leaves formed; blade (5)8–23(38) cm, lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, membranous to ± firm, upper surfaces of midribs hairy, segments serrate, tips generally acute to elongate-acuminate, veins free
Sporangia: sori 1–2.5 mm, generally round, sometimes with short, branched, glandular hairs
Chromosomes: 2n=74
Ecology: Generally near coast, on plants, rocks, moist rocky banks, mossy logs
Elevation: < 600(1200) m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to Alaska (including Aleutian Islands), reported from Kamtchatka Peninsula, USSR
Hybrids with P. scouleri possible; see P. calirhiza, P. hesperium.
Horticultural information: DRN, SHD: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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