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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



David M. Thompson

Annual to shrub, glabrous to hairy
Stem generally erect
Leaves opposite, generally ± sessile, generally toothed or generally entire, reddish or generally green
Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil
Flower sometimes cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, equal or not, generally uppermost largest; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold or yellow, limb width measured at widest point looking into flower, lower lip base sometimes swollen, ± closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; pollen chambers spreading; placentas 2, axile or parietal; stigma lobes generally leaf-like, generally included
Fruit generally ovoid to fusiform, generally upcurved if elongate, generally ± fragile, loculicidal near tip (sometimes hard, indehiscent); chambers 1–2
Seeds many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, yellowish to dark brown
Species in genus: ± 100 species: w North America, Chile, eastern Asia, s Africa, New Zealand, Australia
Etymology: (Latin: little mime or comic actor, from face-like corolla limb of some)
Reference: [Grant 1924 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 11:99–388]


M. guttatus DC.

Annual or rhizomed perennial herb, 2–150 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaves abruptly reduced to sessile bracts; petioles 0–95 mm; blades 4–125 mm, ovate to round, often crenate, base often irregularly small-lobed or dissected
Inflorescence: raceme, generally > 5-flowered; bracts ovate to cordate, fused at base or not, not glaucous
Flower cleistogamous or opening; pedicel 10–80 mm; calyx 6–30 mm, asymmetrically swollen in fruit, glabrous to hairy, lobes unequal, lowest 2 upcurved in fruit; corolla yellow, tube-throat 2–40 mm; placentas axile
Fruit 5–12 mm
Chromosomes: n=14,15,16,24,28
Ecology: Common. Wet places, generally terrestrial, sometimes emergent or floating in mats
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, w Canada, Rocky Mtns, n Mexico
Flowering time: Mar–Aug
Synonyms: subspp. arenicola Pennell, arvensis (Greene) Munz, litoralis Pennell, and micranthus (A. Heller) Munz; M. glabratus Kunth subsp. utahensis Pennell, Utah monkeyflower; M. microphyllus Benth., small-lvd monkeyflower; M. nasutus Greene; M. whipplei A.L. Grant, Whipple's monkeyflower
Exceedingly complex: local populations may be unique but their forms intergrade over geog or elevation; variants not distinguished here
Horticultural information: WET or IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 &SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 24; occasionally. INV.

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