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Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


David M. Thompson

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy
Stem decumbent or vine-like
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, ± round to reniform, entire to palmately lobed; veins palmate
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in leaf axils
Flower: calyx lobes 5, deep, ± unequal; corolla tube with conic or cylindric spur at base, lower lip base swollen, closing mouth
Fruit spheric; chambers dehiscent by several slits radiating from tip
Seeds many, generally ridged or tubercled
Chromosomes: n=7
Species in genus: ± 8 species: especially Medit
Etymology: (Latin: round leaves)


C. muralis Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.


Leaf 1–3 cm wide; lobes 5–9, moderately shallow, rounded to triangular, often abruptly pointed
Flower: calyx 2–2.5 mm; corolla 9–15 mm, pale lilac to violet, spur 1–3 mm, cylindric, lower lip base yellowish
Fruit ± 4 mm, glabrous, pedicel growing away from light
Chromosomes: n=7
Ecology: Rock walls, shady, disturbed areas
Elevation: 0–1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean
Cult as ornamental.

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