|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.-->
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644666]
Highly variable within and between populations.
Hybridization and polyploidy common;polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.
Perennial 30120 cm, (gray-)green, becoming purplish, glabrous to long-hairy and short-glandular
Stem with short axillary shoots
Leaf 3080 mm, ± lanceolate; lobes 03
Inflorescence 640 cm, open below; bracts 2060 mm, generally entire, tips bright red to orange-red; pedicels < 10 mm (0 above)
Flower: calyx 2032 mm, divided 1/61/3 in back, 2/3 in front, < 1/3 on sides, glandular-puberulent and long-hairy, lobes acute to rounded; corolla 3050 mm, beak ± = tube, yellow-green, margins rose-pink, beak densely shaggy-puberulent, lower lip 23 mm, exserted from calyx, dark green or purplish; stigma unlobed
Fruit 1015 mm
Seed ± 2 mm; coat deeply netted, tight-fitting, most walls ladder-like
Ecology: Coastal scrub or chaparral
Elevation: < 2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, n Central Coast, w San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, s Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Inflorescence strongly 2-colored
Flower: calyx divided < 1/5 on sides, lobes linear to narrowly deltate, obviously bent upward; corolla yellow-orange
Chromosomes: 2n=24,48,72, 96
Ecology: Coastal scrub
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast (s Mendocino, Sonoma cos.), n Central Coast (to Santa Cruz Co.), w San Francisco Bay Area
Synonyms: C. f. Pennell
Closely related to more inland or more southern subsp. s
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN, IRR, with host: 15, 16, 17; DFCLT.