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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Barbara Ertter

Annual to shrub; odor resinous or 0
Leaves generally basal, odd-1-pinnate to 1-palmate or 1-ternate; leaflets ± toothed or lobed, terminal generally ± = lateral
Inflorescence: cyme, generally ± open; pedicels generally ± straight
Flower: hypanthium ± shallow; bractlets 5; sepals generally 5, ± triangular; petals generally 5, generally = or > sepals, generally ± widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens generally 20; pistils generally many, styles generally jointed near tip
Fruit: achene
Species in genus: 200–500 species: n temp
Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of powerful, for reputed medicinal value)
Reference: [Clausen, Keck, & Hiesey 1940 Carn Inst Wash Pub 520:26–195]
P. anglica Laicharding is a waif from cultivated: stem trailing; pedicels 2–8 cm, slender; sepals and petals generally 4; leaflets 3–5.


P. anserina L.

Plant tufted from stolons, nonglandular
Leaf pinnate, 3–50(75) cm; main leaflets 5–10 per side (reduced leaflets alternating), 10–50 mm, ± elliptic to oblanceolate, toothed 1/2–1/3 to midvein, densely hairy (at least below)
Inflorescence: flowers solitary from stolon nodes
Flower: hypanthium 4–7 mm wide; petals 7–20 mm; filaments 1–3.5 mm, anthers ± 1 mm; styles ± 2 mm, slender
Fruit ± 2 mm, rough, dark red-brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28,42
Ecology: Wet, often brackish areas
Elevation: 0–2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, s High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, South Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: circumboreal
Reference: [Rousi 1965 Ann Bot Fenn 2:47–112]

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