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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Annual to tree
Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipuled; leaflets generally entire
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; flowers sometime 1–2 in axils
Flowers generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium generally flat or cup-like; sepals generally 5, fused; petals generally 5, free, or the 2 lower ± fused; stamens 1–many, often 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1
Fruit: legume, sometimes including a stalk-like base above receptacle, dehiscent, or indehiscent and breaking into 1-seeded segments, or indehiscent, 1-seeded, and achene-like
Seeds 1–several, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth
Genera in family: ± 650 genera, 18,000 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture and most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis , peanut; Glycine , soybean; Phaseolus , beans; Medicago ; Trifolium ; and many orns
Reference: [Polhill & Raven (eds) 1981 Advances in legume systematics; Allen & Allen 1981 Leguminosae]
Family description and key to genera by Duane Isely.



Rhonda Riggins (annual) and Teresa Sholars (perennial herbs to shrubs)

Annual to shrubs; cotyledons generally petioled, withering early
Stem generally erect
Leaves palmately compound in CA, generally cauline; stipules fused to petiole; leaflets 3–17, generally oblanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: raceme; flowers spiraled or whorled; bracts generally deciduous
Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lobes entire or toothed, generally appendaged between lobes; banner centrally grooved, sides reflexed, wing tips slightly fused, keel generally pointed; stamens 10, filaments fused, 5 long with short anthers, 5 short with long anthers; style brushy
Fruit dehiscent, generally oblong
Seeds 2–12, generally smooth
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America, w South America to e US, also tropical South America, Medit
Etymology: (Latin: wolf, from mistaken idea that plants rob soil of nutrients)
Some cultivated for fodder, green manure, edible seed, ornamental; some naturalized from CA in e North America, South America, Australia, s Africa; some (e.g. L. arboreus, L. latifolius, L. leucophyllus ) have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) TOXIC to livestock (especially sheep)
Reference: [Barneby 1989 Intermountain Flora 3(B):237–267]
Infl length does not include peduncle
Horticultural information: Many lupine taxa need seed pre-treatment (scarification, stratification, inoculation) for successful germination.


L. arboreus Sims


Shrub < 20 dm, green-glabrous to silver-hairy
Stem erect
Leaves cauline; stipules 8–12 mm; petiole 2–3(6) cm; leaflets 5–12, 20–60 mm
Inflorescence 10–30 cm; peduncle 4–10 cm; pedicel 4–10 mm; flowers whorled or not; bracts 8–10 mm, deciduous
Flower 14–18 mm; calyx upper lip 5–9 mm, 2-toothed, lower lip 5–7 mm, entire; petals generally yellow (lilac to purple, especially n of c NCo), banner back glabrous, patch darker or not to white, upper keel margins ciliate from claw to tip, lower margins glabrous
Fruit 4–7 cm, brown to black, hairy
Seeds 8–12, 4–5 mm, black to tan, often striped lighter
Ecology: Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast (probably native Sonoma to Ventura cos., naturalized farther n).Grades ± into L. rivularis in NCo (see L. r.). Plants with yellow petals, sweet-smelling flowers widely cultivated as sand binder. Hairier plants from w SnFrB (yellow banner, blue wings) have been called var. eximius (Burtt Davy) C.P. Sm.; plants with glabrous leaflets and purple petals have been called L. propinquus Greene; study needed
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 4, 5, 17, 24 &IRR: 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23; INV; STBL.

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bioregional map for LUPINUS%20arboreus being generated

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