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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Perennial from clustered, fibrous-tuberous roots or rhizomes, glabrous
Stem generally decumbent or ascending, often rooting at lower nodes
Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, generally 1–3-pinnate, leaflets wide or narrow, generally serrate to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0 or inconspicuous; bractlets many; rays, pedicels many, spreading or spreading-ascending
Flowers: outer bisexual or staminate, sometimes bilateral; outer calyx lobes acute, generally prominent, enlarging in fruit or deciduous; petals wide, white or reddish, tips narrowed; styles persistent
Fruit oblong-ovate to round, subcylindric or ± compressed front-to-back; ribs low, obtuse, corky; oil tubes per rib-interval generally 1
Seed: face flat
Species in genus: ± 30 species: North America, Eurasia, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: wine flower)


O. pimpinelloides L.

Plant 3–10 dm
Leaf: petiole 3–10 cm; blade 8–12 cm, 2–6 cm wide, 2–3-pinnate, leaflets 0.5–2 cm, linear to ovate, irregularly cut to pinnately lobed; upper cauline leaves narrower than basal
Inflorescence: peduncle 5–15 cm; bractlets generally 8, 3–5 mm, linear-lanceolate, acute; rays 8–15, 1–2 cm; pedicels of inner bisexual flowers 1–4 mm
Flower: calyx lobes 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate; styles 3–5 mm
Fruit 2.5–3 mm, oblong, ± compressed front-to-back; ribs slender
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Moist places
Elevation: 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Outer North Coast Ranges (Humboldt Co.)
Distribution outside California: native to Europe

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