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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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PINACEAE

PINE FAMILY

James R. Griffin

Tree or shrub, monoecious, evergreen
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent
Leaves simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; bases decurrent, sometimes woody, persistent several years
Pollen cone generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous
Seed cone generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract
Seeds 2, on upper side of scale base
Genera in family: 10 genera, 193 species: mostly n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > half of world's timber
Reference: [Price 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:247–305]

ABIES

FIR


Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, round, flush with surface; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous
Leaves 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to become 2-ranked, often curved upward on upper twigs, generally ± flat; upper surface with 2 longitudinal, whitish bands, midrib sometimes depressed; lower surface with or without whitish bands, midrib sometimes ridge-like
Seed cone erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st season; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, free from scale; axis persistent on stem
Seed with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: 39 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: silver fir)
Reference: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]

Native

A. grandis (D. Don) Lindl.

GRAND FIR


Stem: trunk < 73 m, < 1.6 m wide; mature crown rounded, with large branches; young bark white-gray, mature bark red-brown, thin; twig hairy; bud resinous
Leaves 2-ranked, < 5 cm, alternating shorter and longer on each side, shorter toward twig tip; upper surface ± flat, without whitish bands; tip notched or blunt
Seed cone 8–15 cm; stalk < 5 mm; bract included
Ecology: Redwood, Douglas-fir, mixed-evergreen forests
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges (Seiad Valley), North Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana
Horticultural information: DRN : 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 2, 3, 7, 15, 16, 17, 24 &SHD: 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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