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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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Jim A. Bartel

Shrub, tree, evergreen, monoecious or dioecious
Leaves cauline, opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, generally scale-like, decurrent, completely covering young stems
Pollen cone small, axillary or terminal
Seed cone ± fleshy to woody, generally hard at maturity; scales opposite or whorled
Seeds 1–many per scale, generally angled or winged, generally wind-dispersed
Genera in family: 17 genera, ± 120 species: worldwide; all North America genera cultivated
Reference: [Elias 1980 Complete Trees North America]
Juvenile leaves needle- or awl-like, sometimes present in ± mature plants, especially in response to grazing or infection, especially in Cupressus, Juniperus.



Shrub, tree, generally dioecious
Stem: bark thin, peeling in strips; young shoots 4-angled to cylindric
Leaves opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, scale-like to less often awl- or needle-like
Pollen cone: pollen sacs 2–6 per scale
Seed cone 5–18 mm, ± fleshy, berry-like, glaucous or not, dry or resinous, sweet, formed by fusion of scales, ± spheric, surrounded at base by minute scale-like bracts, generally maturing 2nd year; scales 3–8, opposite or whorled in 3's
Seeds 1–3(12) per cone, ± flat, unwinged, often not angled, generally animal-dispersed over 2 years; cotyledons 2–6
Species in genus: ± 60 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: juniper)
Reference: [Vasek 1966 Brittonia 18:350–372]


J. communis L.


Shrub < 1 m, generally dioecious
Stem: bark red-brown, peeling in papery sheets
Leaves generally whorled in 3's, 6-ranked, sub-erect to spreading, needle- or awl-like, jointed to decurrent, nongreen base
Pollen cone 4–5 mm
Seed cone 5–8 mm, ± spheric, red maturing bright blue to black, glaucous, resinous
Seeds 1–3 per cone, 2–5 mm, ovoid, acute, generally 3-angled
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Rocky or wooded slopes, high-elevation forests
Elevation: 1900–3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: circumboreal
Synonyms: vars. jackii Rehder, montana Aiton, saxatilis Pall
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6, 17 &IRR: 1, 2, 7, 15, 16 &SHD: 3, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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