Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lauramay T. Dempster (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes strongly scented; odor generally disagreeable
Leaves simple, pinnately lobed, or compound; petioles sometimes sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense
Flowers generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary top, limb 0 or highly modified (if present, lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, becoming plumose, pappus-like, spreading in fruit); corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, epipetalous; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1 (sometimes 3 but 2 empty or vestigial)
Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged
Genera in family: ± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temp, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus ), some medicinal (Valeriana )
Reference: [Ferguson 1965 J Arnold Arbor 46:218–225]


Fred R. Ganders

Annual, glabrous
Stem generally erect, 5–80 cm, generally angled, simple or few-branched
Leaves simple, basal and cauline, opposite, generally entire; basal short-petioled, spoon-shaped; cauline generally sessile, oblong, ovate, or obovate
Inflorescence clustered, head-like or interrupted spike, terminal
Flower: calyx 0; corolla 2-lipped to ± radial and funnel-shaped, white to dark pink, tube generally spurred at base; stamens 3
Fruit: achene; body ± triangular, 2–4 mm, strongly winged or not, wings lateral, wide, ± glabrous to densely hairy
Species in genus: 5 species: w North America, sw South America
Etymology: (Greek: spur)
Reference: [Morey 1962 PhD thesis, Stanford U]
Self-compatible; large-flowered taxa cross- and self-pollinated, small flowered taxa self-pollinated. Wing shape, color, hairiness vary in some species


P. ciliosa (Greene) Jeps.

Flower: corolla 1.5–8.5 mm, pink or dark pink, 2-lipped, lower lip with 2 red spots; spur slender, pointed
Fruit: convex side of body grooved lengthwise, winged; wing hairs in vertical bands especially near body, wing margin thick, generally grooved lengthwise
Chromosomes: 2n=32
Ecology: Common. Open, partly shaded slopes
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except North Coast)
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Arizona, n Baja California

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