Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.


P. newberryi A. Gray

Subshrub 12–30 cm, mat-forming; hairs generally short, backward-pointing (0)
Leaves generally basal, generally reduced upward, short-petioled; main blades, 10–40 mm, (ob)ovate, finely serrate
Inflorescence glandular
Flower: calyx 7–12 mm, lobes ± lanceolate; corolla floor hairy on ridges; anther sacs 0.8–1.2 mm, spreading flat, woolly; staminode included, pale-yellow-hairy distally
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Outcrops, talus
Elevation: 700–3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, n Tehachapi Mountain Area
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Nevada


var. berryi (Eastw.) N.H. Holmgren

Leaves much reduced upward
Flower: corolla 27–35 mm, rose-red, throat 7.5–12 mm wide when pressed, floor long-curly-hairy; stamens included, anthers sacs 1.2–1.7 mm
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 1600–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: subsp. berryi (Eastw.) D.D. Keck
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 1, 2, 7 &SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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