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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Gregory K. Brown and W. Dennis Clark

Perennial or shrub, generally resinous
Stems < 2.5 m, leafy
Leaves generally sessile or short-petioled
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid; involucres obconic to bell-shaped; phyllaries in several overlapping series, linear to oblanceolate, generally recurved
Ray flowers 0–25; corollas < 9 mm, yellow
Disk flowers 4–60; corollas 4–10 mm, gradually flared from middle
Fruit 1–10 mm, 4–5-angled; pappus of 20–60 bristles, 2.5–12 mm, white to reddish brown
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America
Etymology: (Barclay Hazard, 19th Century CA botanist)
Reference: [Clark 1979 Madroño 26:105–127]


H. squarrosa (Hook. & Arn.) Greene


Shrub 3–23 dm, glabrous to sparsely hairy, often ± resinous
Leaves 1.5–5 cm, leathery or stiffly papery, oblong to obovate, obtuse, toothed
Inflorescence: heads discoid; involucre 7–10 mm wide, obconic; phyllaries 30–60, 3–10 mm, oblong to lanceolate
Disk flowers 9–30; corollas 9–11 mm, tinged red
Fruit 5–8 mm, 5-angled, glabrous; pappus 7–12 mm, white to reddish brown
Chromosomes: 2n=10
Ecology: scrub
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: s San Joaquin Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Synonyms: Haplopappus s. Hook. & Arn


var. squarrosa

Plant ± glabrous (except sometimes stems), resinous
Inflorescence: involucre 11–15 mm; phyllaries recurved, glandular, obtuse to acute
Flowers 18–30; corollas 10–11 mm
Fruit: pappus tan
Ecology: Foothills, coastal mtns
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer South Coast Ranges
Synonyms: Haplopappus s. Hook. & Arn. subsp. s
Horticultural information: DRY, DRN, SUN: 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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