Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lauramay T. Dempster (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes strongly scented; odor generally disagreeable
Leaves simple, pinnately lobed, or compound; petioles sometimes sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense
Flowers generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary top, limb 0 or highly modified (if present, lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, becoming plumose, pappus-like, spreading in fruit); corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, epipetalous; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1 (sometimes 3 but 2 empty or vestigial)
Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged
Genera in family: ± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temp, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus ), some medicinal (Valeriana )
Reference: [Ferguson 1965 J Arnold Arbor 46:218–225]


Annual, perennial herb (in CA)
Stems 1–many; base sometimes woody
Leaves generally cauline, simple, entire, toothed, or lobed
Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, dense, terminal or axillary
Flower: calyx lobes 5–15, coiled inward, becoming plumose, spreading and persistent in fruit; corolla ± funnel-shaped, lobes ± unequal, spreading, tube long, slender, long-spurred; stamen 1
Fruit ± compressed; inner surface 1-veined, outer surface 3-veined
Species in genus: 12 species: Medit
Etymology: (Greek: spurred flower)


C. ruber (L.) DC.


Plant glabrous, glaucous; base generally woody
Stem decumbent to erect, simple or branched, 3–9 dm, hollow
Leaves 5–8 cm; lower petioled; upper sessile; blades widely oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, acute to rounded, entire
Inflorescence: flowers many
Flower: corolla 14–18 mm, generally purplish red, sometimes lavender or white; spur 2 X ovary length
Fruit 3–4 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Disturbed urban places, rock or wall crevices, roadsides
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, cultivated elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean Europe

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