|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Annual, perennial herb, from taproot or lateral roots
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, alternate, simple to 2-pinnate
Inflorescence bracted; spike, raceme, or flowers solitary in axils
Flower radial, generally opening at dawn (rarely at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed (sometimes 23 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, lavender, often with darker basal spots, generally fading purplish or reddish; stamens (4)8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers generally attached at middle (or base), pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa (visible with hand lens); ovary chambers 4, stigma ± head-like or hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit straight to coiled, generally sessile
Seeds in 12 rows per chamber
Species in genus: 62 species: w North America (especially CA-FP), 1 South America
Etymology: (L.A. von Chamisso, French-born German botanist, 17811838)
Reference: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161396]
Polyploidy and self-pollination have predominated in evolution of genus. Previously included in Oenothera (" O." in synonyms).
Annual, slender; rosette generally ± 0; hairs 0, coarse, or glandular
Stem decumbent or erect, 525(50) cm, peeling
Leaf 530 mm, linear to narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblanceolate, minutely to coarsely serrate
Flower: hypanthium 1.55 mm; sepals 38(12) mm, remaining adherent in pairs; petals (3.5)515 mm, yellow fading reddish, base with (1)2 red dots; stigma exceeding anthers
Fruit 2043 mm, 0.72 mm wide, cylindric, alternately narrow and swollen by seeds, straight or wavy, subsessile
Seeds in 1 row per chamber, 0.81.6 mm, shiny, minutely pitted
Ecology: Open sandy flats, desert scrub, noncoastal grasslands
Elevation: 02000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, e Southwestern California, Mojave Desert
Synonyms: O. c. Greene
Cross-pollinated. Sspp. intergrade extensively.
Stem generally decumbent
Leaf narrowly elliptic, coarsely serrate
Ecology: Marine deposits in openings in chaparral and oak woodland
Elevation: 100500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer South Coast Ranges.
Hybridizes with C. contorta, C. strigulosa.
Horticultural information: TRY.