|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 45, generally free; petals generally 45, free or fused; stamens 810, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 15, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:188; 1975 Bot Not 128:286298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
Shrubs, small trees
Stem prostrate to erect; fire-resistant burl sometimes present at base; bark generally reddish, smooth or gray, rough, and shredded; hairs generally alike on twig, inflorescence axis, bract
Leaves alternate, spreading to ascending, evergreen; blade surfaces generally alike, sometimes convex, differing in color (stomata restricted to lower surface) or hairiness; margin flat to rolled
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle-like, terminal; branches raceme-like; flowers bracted; bracts leaf-like, generally flat or scale-like, generally folded, keeled; immature inflorescence present late summer through winter
Flower radial; sepals generally 5, free, persistent; corolla generally 5-lobed, urn-shaped to ± spheric, white to pink; stamens generally 10, included, filament base glabrous or hairy, anther 2-pored, awns 2, recurved; ovary superior, base surrounded by nectary disk, chambers 210, ovule 1 per chamber, style 1, stigma head-like
Fruit: drupe, berry-like, generally ± spheric; pulp generally thick, mealy; stones 210, free, separable, or strongly fused
Species in genus: ± 60 species: North America (especially CA) to C.Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Reference: [Wells 1988 Madroño 35:330341]
Observation of hairs requires 10X magnification. Distribution of many species local; hybridization occurs in areas of overlap
Horticultural information: Beautiful but mostly DFCLT due to fungus and often salinity and alkali. Avoid overhead watering in hot weather. CVS are the easier garden subjects.
Shrub 12.5 m; burl present, often wide, ± flat-topped
Stems erect; bark smooth, reddish, or sometimes rough, gray; twigs generally tomentose, sometimes glandular or long-bristly
Leaves ± spreading; petiole 25 mm; blade 25 cm, 1.52.5 cm wide, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, base truncate to ± lobed, margin entire, sometimes toothed, cupped or ± rolled, blade surfaces not alike, upper convex, dark to bright green, ± shiny, lower ± tomentose, sometimes finely glandular-bristly, papillate, scabrous or ± glabrous
Inflorescence: branches 28, crowded; bracts 815 mm, leaf-like, lanceolate; pedicel 25 mm, finely tomentose, sometimes finely glandular-bristly or glabrous; immature axes 1025 mm, ± crowded
Flower: ovary generally densely white-tomentose, sometimes glandular or glabrous
Fruit 610 mm wide, ± hairy
Ecology: Rocky or sandy soils, slopes, chaparral, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 1100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, n Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges.
Stem: bark gray, rough, persistent as flat shreds; twigs densely glandular-bristly or tomentose
Leaf: lower blade surface sparsely glandular-bristly, papillate, scabrous or ± glabrous
Flower: pedicel hairs like twig hairs; ovary white-tomentose, ± sparsely glandular
Ecology: Uncommon. Open, shale outcrops
Elevation: 200300 m.
Bioregional distribution: c Central Coast (Jack's Peak, near Monterey)
Synonyms: var. trichoclada (DC.) Munz; var. hebeclada (DC.) McMinn
Plants with twigs tomentose, leaves ± glabrous are called forma hebeclada (DC.) P. Wells. Plants with twigs, leaves ± glandular-bristly are called forma bracteosa. Both forms, some intermediates found together
Horticultural information: In cultivation.