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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.



John R. Reeder

Annual, perennial herb, often glandular; glands often wart-like, circular, pitted
Leaf: sheath margin hairy on sides just below collar; ligules ciliate
Inflorescence generally panicle-like, open or dense, sometimes spike-like, often glandular
Spikelet laterally compressed; glumes ± unequal, acute or acuminate, 1(3)-veined; florets 3–many, axis breaking above glumes and between florets (or persistent with glumes and lemmas deciduous, paleas remaining attached or not); lemma keeled or rounded, acute or obtuse, 3-veined, veins generally obvious; palea ± = lemma
Fruit lens-shaped or elliptic, sometimes grooved, generally red-brown
Species in genus: ± 300 species: tropical, warm temp
Etymology: (Greek: eros, love, agrostis, a kind of grass)
Reference: [Koch 1974 Ill Biol Monogr 48:1–74]


E. cilianensis (All.) Janch.


Stems spreading or decumbent, sometimes abruptly bent, often branching, < 6 dm; glands generally present below stem nodes
Leaf: sheath glabrous, long-hairy below collar, keel glandular; blade 10–20 cm, 2–8 mm wide, flat or inrolled, margin with wart-like glands
Inflorescence < 20 cm, 5–6+ cm wide, ± compact, generally gray-green
Spikelet 2.5–3 mm wide, linear to ovate; glumes 1.5–2 mm, ± equal, midvein often glandular; axis not breaking apart, paleas persistent; florets (5)10–45; lemma 2–2.5 mm, lateral veins prominent, midvein generally glandular; anthers ± 0.2 mm
Fruit ± 0.6 mm, ± spheric
Chromosomes: 2n=20
Ecology: Disturbed soils
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to e US; native to Europe
Flowering time: Jun–Oct
Synonyms: E. megastachya (Koeler) Link

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