Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


James K. Jarvie and Mary E. Barkworth

Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Stems erect, sometimes tufted
Leaf: sheath appendaged; ligule membranous; blade flat or rolled
Inflorescence spike-like; axis generally not breaking apart in fruit; spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, ± appressed to axis, 1 per node
Spikelet: glumes thick, midvein generally prominent and scabrous at least above middle, tip truncate, obtuse, acute or short-awned; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma generally awnless
Species in genus: 25 species: Medit Eur, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: from combination of Elymus and Triticum )
Reference: [Jarvie 1990 PhD dissertation UT State Univ]
Some species cultivated for forage, erosion control; some serious weeds. See Agropyron, Elymus, Pseudoroegneria.


E. elongata (Host) Nevski


Stem 3.5–13 dm
Leaf: sheath glabrous; blade 2–5 mm wide, veins < 8, strongly ribbed
Inflorescence 10–26 cm
Spikelet 10–18 mm; glume tips truncate; florets 4–11; lemmas 6–10 mm; anthers 4–6 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14,28
Ecology: Disturbed areas, slopes
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Great Basin; native to Mediterranean Europe
Synonyms: Agropyron e. (Host) P. Beauv. in part

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