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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


James K. Jarvie and Mary E. Barkworth

Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Stems erect, sometimes tufted
Leaf: sheath appendaged; ligule membranous; blade flat or rolled
Inflorescence spike-like; axis generally not breaking apart in fruit; spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, ± appressed to axis, 1 per node
Spikelet: glumes thick, midvein generally prominent and scabrous at least above middle, tip truncate, obtuse, acute or short-awned; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma generally awnless
Species in genus: 25 species: Medit Eur, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: from combination of Elymus and Triticum )
Reference: [Jarvie 1990 PhD dissertation UT State Univ]
Some species cultivated for forage, erosion control; some serious weeds. See Agropyron, Elymus, Pseudoroegneria.


E. juncea (L.) Nevski subsp. boreo-atlantica (Simonet & Guin.) Hyl.

Stems 2.7–5 dm, tufted
Leaf: sheath glabrous; blade 2–4 mm wide, rolled; veins < 8, strongly ribbed
Inflorescence 4–6 cm, breaking apart in fruit
Spikelets 14–30 mm; florets 4–8; glume tips obtuse to acute; lemmas 10–16 mm with short awn; anthers 6–12 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Sand dunes
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Central Coast (San Francisco)
Distribution outside California: native to Europe, n Africa
Synonyms: Agropyron junceum (L.) P. Beauv

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bioregional map for ELYTRIGIA%20juncea%20subsp.%20boreo-atlantica being generated

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