Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


Kelly W. Allred

Perennial, dioecious
Stems densely clumped, erect
Leaves generally basal; sheath glabrous to hairy; ligule short, hairy; blades flat or folded
Inflorescence panicle-like, plume-like
Spikelets ± laterally compressed; glumes unequal, 1-veined; florets 2–8, breaking above glumes and between florets; lemmas silky-hairy, 3–5-veined, tip awned
Species in genus: 24 species: South America, New Zealand, New Guinea
Etymology: (Argentine term for cutting)
Reference: [Costas Lippmann 1977 Fremontia 4:25–27]


C. jubata (Lemoine) Stapf

Plants pistillate only, producing fruit asexually
Stem 2–7 m
Leaf: sheath densely hairy; blade 2–10 cm wide, deep green, distal half straight, upper surface hairy at base
Inflorescence 3–10 dm
Spikelets 14–16 mm; florets 3–5; lemma hairy, tip acuminate, awn < 1 mm; stigmas included
Chromosomes: 2n=108
Ecology: Disturbed sites, many habitats, especially coastal
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges
Distribution outside California: native to montane w S.America; invasive

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