Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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Dale W. McNeal, except as specified

Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food; some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.



Mark W. Skinner

Perennial from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs), generally not clonal, ± glabrous
Stem erect
Leaves ± whorled (often some scattered), sessile, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0
Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower
Flower generally radial, generally bell- or trumpet-shaped; perianth segments 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, outer generally ± clawed, generally red-purple-spotted on inner base; stamens 6, anthers attached near middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed
Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal
Seeds many, flat, in 6 stacks
Species in genus: ± 90 species: n temp, tropical mtns of e Asia
Etymology: (Greek: lily)
Reference: [Skinner 1988 PhD Harvard Univ]
Variable; hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction and collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May to Aug.


L. pardalinum Kellogg

Plant < 3 m, ± clonal; bulb horizontal, rhizome-like, often branched, scales (0)2–4-segmented, longest 10–33 mm
Leaves scattered or in 1–8 whorls, 4–27 cm, generally ± elliptic; margin generally not wavy
Inflorescence: flowers 1–35, pendent
Flower ± widely bell-shaped, generally not fragrant; perianth segments 3–11 cm, 60–75% strongly recurved, generally ± 2-toned, inner surface generally pale orange to red on distal 25–60%, lighter near base, maroon spots near tip margined yellow or orange; stamens >> perianth, filaments spreading ± widely, anthers 6–17 mm, ± magenta to orange or yellow, becoming darker, pollen red-brown to yellow, becoming lighter; pistil 3–8 cm
Fruit 2–6 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Moist places, streambanks, along coast
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Intergrading complex.


subsp. pitkinense (Beane & Vollmer) M.W. Skinner


Weakly clonal; bulb scales (0)2-segmented
Leaves whorled
Flower: perianth segments 5–7 cm, 2-toned, tips darker; anthers 6–11 mm, magenta, pollen red- or brown-orange; pistil 3–5 cm
Ecology: Marshes, valley-oak scrub
Elevation: 35–60 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Outer North Coast Ranges (Pitkin Marsh, Sonoma Co.)
Synonyms: L. p. Beane & Vollmer
Barely distinct from subsp. pardalinum. Threatened by habitat loss, grazing, competition, collecting
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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