Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Elizabeth McClintock, except as specified

Perennial, bulbed, cormed, or rhizomed
Stem generally erect
Leaves generally basal (a few cauline), 2-ranked, ± linear, generally grass-like, generally sharply folded along midrib; bases overlapping, sheathing
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, ± terminal, or flowers solitary; bracts ± like leaf bases, sheathing
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium fused to ovary; perianth parts generally fused into tube above ovary, generally petal-like, in 2 series of 3, outer (sepals) generally ± like inner (petals); stamens 3, generally attached to sepals, filaments fused below into a tube or not; ovary inferior, 3-chambered, placentas generally axile, style 1, each of 3 branches entire or 2-branched or -lobed, petal-like or not, with stigma on under surface instead of at tip
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal
Seeds few–many
Genera in family: 80 genera, ± 1500 species: worldwide, especially Africa; many cultivated (e.g., Iris, Gladiolus, Crocus, Freesia ).



Douglass M. Henderson and Anita F. Cholewa

Perennial; rhizome creeping or ± tuber-like
Inflorescence: flowers 1–many
Flower: perianth parts clawed, sepals (wider, spreading or reflexed) unlike petals (generally narrower, erect); style branches ± petal-like, arching over stamens, each with flat, scale-like stigma on surface facing stamen, just below generally 2-lobed tip (crest)
Seeds compressed, pitted
Species in genus: Perhaps 150 species: generally n temp
Etymology: (Greek: rainbow, from flower colors)
Reference: [Lenz 1958 Aliso 4:1–72; Clarkson 1959 Madroño 15:115–122]
Hybrids are common, especially in I. tenax alliance; some authors lump taxa recognized here.
Horticultural information: Pacific Iris hybrids; CVS.


I. douglasiana Herb.

Rhizome < 9 mm diam
Stem 1.5–8 dm, sometimes branched
Leaf < 22 mm wide
Inflorescence: flowers 2–3; lowest 2 bracts opposite, sometimes alternate, outer or lower of these 6–15.5 cm, 4–12 mm wide
Flower: perianth pale cream to light, dark lavender or deep reddish purple, tube 10–28 mm, sepals 5–8.7 cm, 14–30 mm wide; ovary tip with nipple-like projection, style branches 17–35 mm, crests 10–20 mm, stigmas triangular
Chromosomes: 2n=40
Ecology: Common. Grassy places, especially near coast
Elevation: generally < 100(1000) m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Central Western California, n Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: var. altissima Jeps.; var. oregonensis R.C. Foster
Highly variable. Noxious weed in pastures, because leaves unpalatably bitter
Horticultural information: 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 &IRR: 15, 24 &SHD: 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23; GRCVR.

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