Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, ± linear; upper finely divided
Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally leaf-like
Flower: calyx ± equally 4-lobed; corolla club-shaped (except T. pusilla ), lips nearly equal, upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip deeply 3-pouched, 3-toothed, throat abruptly indented forming a fold; stamens 4, anther sac 1; stigma generally slightly enlarged, entire to slightly 2-lobed
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid
Seeds many, 0.8–1.2 mm, ovoid, attached at base; coat netted, generally tight-fitting
Species in genus: 5 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: 3 bladders, from lower lip pouches)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Hybrids common. Related to Castilleja and Orthocarpus but isolated reproductively
Horticultural information: TRY with host; DFCLT


T. pusilla (Benth.) Chuang & Heckard

Plant 5–20 cm, yellow-brown or purplish, finely spreading-hairy
Stem decumbent-branched from base; main axis obscure
Leaf 5–30 mm, 3–9-lobed
Inflorescence 4–15 cm, ± from stem base; bracts 5–12 mm, 3–11-lobed (sometimes 2-pinnate)
Flower: calyx 5–7 mm, divided 1/3–2/3, hairy; corolla 4–7 mm, generally purplish (yellow), beak hooked, pouches ± 1 mm deep; stamens included
Fruit 4–6 mm, round, compressed
Seeds 20–30, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Grassland
Elevation: < 400 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Synonyms: Orthocarpus p. Benth

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