Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Linda Ann Vorobik

Perennial, green root-parasites
Stems decumbent to erect, generally 1–several from generally short caudex
Leaves alternate, generally ± basal, generally < inflorescence, crenate to divided, generally reduced upward; petiole generally < blade
Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like; bracts (at least lower) generally ± like upper leaves; pedicels 1–6 mm
Flower: calyx lobes (2,4) generally 5, uppermost generally shortest (all generally < tube), lateral fused in pairs; corolla white or yellow to red or purple, upper lip hood-, beak-, or trunk-like, lower lip 3-lobed, narrow to fan-shaped, central lobe generally smallest; fertile stamens 4, generally glabrous, anthers generally included; stigma head-like, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, generally ± ovoid, asymmetric, opening mostly on upper side
Seed smooth or netted
Species in genus: ± 500 species: cool wet n temp, circumboreal, South America
Etymology: (Latin: lice, from belief that ingestion by stock promoted lice infestation)
Reference: [Macior 1977 Bull Torrey Bot Club 104: 148–154]

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