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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



David M. Thompson

Annual to shrub, glabrous to hairy
Stem generally erect
Leaves opposite, generally ± sessile, generally toothed or generally entire, reddish or generally green
Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil
Flower sometimes cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, equal or not, generally uppermost largest; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold or yellow, limb width measured at widest point looking into flower, lower lip base sometimes swollen, ± closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; pollen chambers spreading; placentas 2, axile or parietal; stigma lobes generally leaf-like, generally included
Fruit generally ovoid to fusiform, generally upcurved if elongate, generally ± fragile, loculicidal near tip (sometimes hard, indehiscent); chambers 1–2
Seeds many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, yellowish to dark brown
Species in genus: ± 100 species: w North America, Chile, eastern Asia, s Africa, New Zealand, Australia
Etymology: (Latin: little mime or comic actor, from face-like corolla limb of some)
Reference: [Grant 1924 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 11:99–388]


M. aurantiacus Curtis

Subshrub, shrub, glabrous to hairy
Stem 10–150 cm; main leaf axils often with clusters of smaller leaves
Leaf 20–80 mm, linear to obovate; edges generally rolled under; upper surface glabrous, often sticky
Flower: pedicel 3–30 mm; calyx 20–37 mm, not swollen at base, glabrous to hairy, lobes unequal, 3–10 mm, acute to acuminate; corolla persistent, white to buff, yellow, orange, or red, tube-throat 25–60 mm; placentas parietal
Fruit 12–20 mm, splitting only along upper suture
Chromosomes: n=10
Ecology: Common. Rocky hillsides, cliffs, canyon slopes, disturbed areas, borders of chaparral, open forest
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, nw edge Sonoran Desert
Flowering time: Mar–Jun
Synonyms: subspp. australis (McMinn) Munz and lompocensis (McMinn) Munz
Highly complex, with many intergrading, hybridizing, local forms; the most distinct have been called M. aridus (Abrams) A.L. Grant, low bush monkeyflower (corolla yellow; se PR, San Diego Co., nw Baja CA); M. bifidus Pennell including subsp. fasciculatus Pennell (corolla lobes deeply notched; SNF, SCoRO); M. flemingii Munz (corolla red; n ChI, San Clemente Island); M. longiflorus (Nutt.) A.L. Grant including subsp. calycinus (Eastw.) Munz & var. rutilus A.L. Grant (calyx hairy; s SCoRO, SW); M. puniceus (Nutt.) Steudel (corolla red; sw SW, including Santa Catalina Island). The name M. parviflorus Lindl. has been misapplied to M. flemingii Munz
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR fall through spring, DRY when dormant: 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 &SUN: 4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 24; CVS.

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