Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


David M. Thompson

Perennial, glabrous to hairy
Stem prostrate, erect, pendent, or climbing by twining stems or petioles
Leaves generally alternate (lowest opposite on seedlings), entire to irregularly bristly-dentate; veins palmate
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in leaf axils
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube with sac-like extension at base, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds, lower lip base generally not swollen, generally not closing mouth
Fruit ovoid to ± spheric, often oblique; chambers 1–2, equal or not, each generally dehiscent by 2–3 pores or irregularly near tip
Seeds many, ± tubercled, pitted, or winged
Species in genus: 20 species: sw US, Mex
Etymology: (C.P. Maurandy, botany professor, Cartagena, Spain, ± 18th century)
Recent taxonomic note: *For alternate taxonomy see Ghebrehiwet et al. 2000 Plant Syst Evol 220:223–239; Elisens 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 5:1–97.

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