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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Patrick E. Elvander

Perennial or subshrub from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy
Stem often ± leafy on lower half, rarely trailing and leafy throughout
Leaves generally simple, basal or sometimes cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate
Inflorescence: panicle, generally ± scapose
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens generally 5 or 10; pistils 2 and simple or 1 and compound (chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, axile or parietal), ovary superior to inferior, sometimes more superior in fruit, styles generally 2
Fruit: 2 follicles or 2–4-valved capsule
Seeds generally many, small
Genera in family: 40 genera, 600 species: especially n temp, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia , Darmera , Heuchera , Saxifraga , Tellima , Tolmiea )
Reference: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]



Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets
Leaves basal and cauline, reduced, sometimes opposite, more deeply lobed upward; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed
Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0
Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, valves 3
Species in genus: 12 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats)
Reference: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Generic names ending in "phragma" are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.


L. affine A. Gray

Leaf: basal blade ± 3–5-lobed, teeth ± sharp-tipped
Inflorescence 10–60 cm; flowers 3–15; pedicels 3–10 mm
Flower: hypanthium obconic, ± inflated above, part fused to ovary ± = free part; petals 5–13 mm, ovate-elliptic, 3-lobed at tip; ovary > half inferior
Seed smooth
Chromosomes: 2n=14,21,28,35
Ecology: Open, grassy slopes
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, s Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon, Baja California
Synonyms: subsp. mixtum R.L. Taylor, L. tripartita (Greene) Greene
Intermediates to L. parviflorum common in n CA
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY: 4, 5, 6, 17, 24 &SHD: 7, 9, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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