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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, free; stamens generally 10–many; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1–many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1–many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ), some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:24–27]


Annual generally from taproot
Stem generally 1, erect, branched to not
Leaves palmately or palmate-pinnately deeply lobed or dissected; cauline merging into bracts upward
Inflorescence: raceme, terminal; pedicels spreading to ascending
Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, white to blue or violet, uppermost spurred; petal 1, in color = sepals, tip generally lobed, arched over stamens, base with spur enclosed in uppermost sepal spur; pistil 1
Fruit: follicle
Seed brown to black, minutely scaly in rows
Species in genus: ± 40 species: Medit Eur, w Asia
Etymology: (Latin: consolidate, from reported ability to heal wounds)
Reference: [Keener 1976 Castanea 41:12–20]
Segregated from Delphinium.


C. ajacis (L.) Schur

Plant ± puberulent throughout except stem glabrous below
Stem 45–100 cm
Leaves short-petioled; segments 14–21, < 2 mm wide, linear
Inflorescence (3)8–21-flowered; pedicels 5–16 mm
Flower: sepals white, pink, or blue, lateral 8–15 mm, spur 12–18 mm
Fruit 9–18 mm
Seed brown
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Disturbed soils, waste places, often a waif
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to eastern US; native to Europe
Synonyms: Consolida ambigua (L.) P. W. Ball & Heywood misapplied

Information on Misapplied Name was contributed by Kurt F. Campbell (21 Jan 2004):
The online JM listing for Consolida ambigua (formerly Delphinium ajacis) gives the name as, "Consolida ajacis." The printed JM and other sources use, "Consolida ambigua"

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