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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.


Elizabeth McClintock

Stems simple or branched
Leaves alternate, entire to pinnately lobed or toothed
Inflorescence: heads radiate, generally long-peduncled, generally solitary; phyllaries in 2–3 series, margins scarious; receptacle generally convex to conic, chaff 0
Ray flowers ± 20(0), pistillate; ligules generally white
Disk flowers many; corollas yellow; anther tips ovate, bases rounded or ± cordate; style branches truncate with shrub-like tips
Fruit generally 10-ribbed; pappus 0 or a narrow crown
Species in genus: ± 20 species: Eur, n Africa
Etymology: (Greek: white flower)
Reference: [Humphries 1976 Bull Brit Mus Bot 5:147–240]


L. vulgare Lam.


Stems from a creeping rootstock, 2–5 dm, erect, stout, sparingly branched, ± glabrous
Leaves pinnately lobed or toothed; lowermost and middle blades < 12 cm, obovate to spoon-shaped, petiole = blade, wingless; upper cauline leaves shorter, oblong, sessile
Inflorescence: heads 3–7 cm diam
Ray flowers ± 22(0); ligules 1–3.5 mm, white
Disk flowers: corollas ± 2.5 mm
Fruit ± 2 mm, 10-ribbed
Chromosomes: 2n=18,36,54,72,90
Ecology: Common. Escape from cultivated in pastures, disturbed mtn meadows, roadsides, fields
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n&c High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: native to Europe
Synonyms: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L

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