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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]



Harlan Lewis

Annual, shrub, strong-scented
Stem hairy, often glandular
Leaf simple; blade linear to ovate, entire
Inflorescence: cymes (racemes in T. lanceolatum), axillary
Flower: calyx lobes 5, equal or uppermost 1 narrower; corolla blue or lavender, tube straight or curved upward, sometimes abruptly near throat, included to much exserted from calyx, lobes 5, lowest a generally reflexed lip; stamens 4, attached near throat, generally much exserted, ascending between upper corolla lobes, generally arched
Fruit: nutlets 4, joined in basal ± 1/3, puberulent to hairy, irregularly ridged
Species in genus: ± 17 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: hair, stamen)
Reference: [Lewis 1945 Brittonia 5:276–303]
Annual species generally flowering late summer or fall.


T. lanceolatum Benth.


Annual < 1 m
Stem: short hairs appressed, long hairs soft, spreading, some hairs glandular
Leaf: petiole indistinct or < 4 mm; blade 2–7 cm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, length > 3 X width, lateral veins prominent near base
Flower: calyx lobes = to 3 X tube, uppermost often narrower; corolla tube 5–10 mm, curved abruptly upward near throat, exserted, lower lip 4–8 mm; stamens 13–20 mm, much exserted, strongly arched
Chromosomes: n=7
Ecology: Dry, open, generally disturbed habitats
Elevation: generally < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SUN: 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; leaves have strong odor.

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