Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Annual, fleshy
Stem many-branched, prostrate or reclined, brittle; angles ± glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles
Leaves simple, cauline; lower opposite; upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnately lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles on both surfaces
Inflorescence terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers solitary; pedicels present
Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobed to middle, lobes generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary chamber 1, bristly-hairy, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2
Fruit spheric; bristles stout
Seeds 1–8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed
Species in genus: 3 species: CA, AZ, Baja CA
Etymology: (Greek: scale mouth)
Reference: [Constance 1939 Bull Torrey Bot Club 66:341–352]


P. auritum (Lindl.) Lilja

Stem 1–15 cm
Leaves: lower 4–16 cm, 1–8 cm wide, petiole widely winged, clasping, blade oblong to ovate-lanceolate, base cordate, tip acuminate, lobes 5–13, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, entire or 1–5-toothed
Inflorescence: flowers solitary or 2–6 in cymes; pedicels 1–3 cm
Flower: calyx lobes 3–9 mm, ± lanceolate, sinus appendages 1–4 mm; corolla 3–15 mm, 5–30 mm wide, blue to purple with darker marks in throat; style 4–8 mm
Fruit 5–10 mm wide, enclosed in calyx
Seeds 1–4
Ecology: Ocean bluffs, talus slopes, woodlands, streambanks, canyons, desert scrub
Elevation: 0–1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, ne Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: to Arizona

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